What is Gravity?
The search for a unified field theory has thus far been unsuccessful concerning gravity. Earlier an obstacle to finding an explanation due to electricity has been the existence of electrically neutral particles with mass, e.g. neutrons. Nowadays, when also these have been shown to contain charges, i.e. quarks, the electricity model would work. If assuming that the positive end negative quarks are situated at a distance from each other, a classical "dipole electric field" would appear from them, even though the sum of their respective charges is zero, merely due to classical electrostatics.
The typical behavior of dipoles also corresponds to that of "masses". They attract each others in that the part close to the center of the negative charges attract the part close to the center of the positive charges of the neighbor. Inevitably, this kind of attractive force must appear, due to Coulomb´s law, and hence the strength must be non-vanishing and thus a competitor to the "pure" gravity field explanation.
Numerical calculations would be needed before accepting the " new theory."
Jan Olof Jonson email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Östmarksgatan 50 nb, SE-123 42 Farsta, Stockholm, SWEDEN
Relativity and Gravitation: Concerning the Link Between Three Theories
Brief summary of the matter in discussion.
The present commentary is my answer to a question of general interest that I have been asked recently. It concerns the two articles I have already published in the Journal of Theoretics (Ref. 1 and 2). To avoid the reader the detailed lecture of these articles, a brief summary of the matter in discussion is given first.
The main hypothesis that
I have presented is the existence of a close link
between the laws of thermodynamics and the Einstein mass-energy
laws of thermodynamics are often expressed under the condensed expression:
dS = dQ /Te + dSi
where dS has the dimensions of an entropy.
Correlatively, the Einstein
mass-energy relation can be given the form:
dE = - c2
where dE has the dimensions of an energy.
In order to give equation
(1) the dimensions of an energy, I have written it under the form:
= dQ + TedSi
and, referring to a
thermodynamic system, I have suggested that its
dUe + dUi
variation of energy = Variation of external origin + Variation
of internal origin
The link between
Thermodynamics and Relativity lies in the idea (explained in article 1) that
dUi = - c2
dm, so that we have:
dU* = dUe - c2
expression being valid in all cases, and reducing - for an isolated system -
to the simple form:
= - c2 dm
It is precisely the
context of an isolated system that was considered in my previous papers. I
have examined the very simple case where such a system is composed of two
parts 1 and 2, both defined as a given amount of water, taken as having the
same mass, but differing in their initial temperatures (T2
> T1 for instance).
Knowing that the two
parts will exchange heat until their temperatures become equal, I have
applied equation (4) to each of them, the calculation being driven by
integration of equation (3), as classically done in thermodynamics. While
the global system is isolated, I have been led to the conclusion that it has
lost a little part of its mass, corresponding to the liberation of a
correlative amount of energy that I have imagined as being gravitational.
question, the remark I have received is the following: "Since the
initial condition was T2
> T1, there is no
problem in admitting that, having lost thermal energy, part 2 has lost a
corresponding amount of mass, according to the Einstein mass-energy
relation. The problem is that such loss of mass must be exactly balanced by
the gain of mass registered by part 1, in the same manner as we classically
admit an exact balance of energy between the two parts of the system, since
this system is defined as isolated".
A brief summary
of my answer:
The major point of the
discussion is the thermodynamic difference between a reversible and an
irreversible process. When an exchange of energy - such as heat - occurring
inside an isolated system is reversible, the term TedSi
of equation (3), and the equivalent terms dUi
of equation (4) and -c2
dm of equation (5) are zero, so that the mass of the system remains
When an exchange of
energy is irreversible, the value of these terms is positive so that the
mass of the system decreases, according to the sign minus which is present
in - c2 dm.
At the present time, the
chapters "Thermodynamics" of the books on physics do not
include equation (4) - or some other expression having the same
signification - so that the analogy between equations (3) and (5), (in other
words the close link between thermodynamics and relativity) is not taken
into account. Nevertheless, it is easy to see that some equations that can
be found in the chapters "Relativity" are very similar to
equations (5) and (4) evoked
above and consequently to equation (3).
The interested reader can refer, for example, to the
well-known book of Eugene Hecht, headed "Physics" (Ref. 3). In
chapter "Relativity", he will find two equations, respectively
Ec + mc2
As explained by the
author, the term mc2,
or its equivalent form Eo,
corresponds to the energy at rest, so that the analogy between these
equations and equation (4) can
be understood as being:
dU* = dUe + dUi
each term of the first equation corresponding to the terms located on the same vertical in the second and third equations. Of course, the two last equations must be here considered in their differential form, i.e., in the sense:
dEo + dEc
for equation 8
Such an analogy leads to
the idea that the relativistic concepts are potentially present in the basic
laws of classical physics and that the evolution of all systems
- even those defined as "isolated" - is closely related to
I would like to thank
the readers who have asked me upon this topic. I am very grateful to the
Journal of Theoretics for publishing the present answer.
A Contrary View of Time
REF: "It’s About Time" by Marv Cruzan (Journal ofTheoretics Vol. 3-6)
Marv Cruzan gives a very brief essay in regards to the current logical views associated to time as a concept only or as a true physical dimension. Einstein I believe considers it to be a true dimension by insisting you must include it when talking about anything to do with space in this universe. I also have come to the conclusion that it is an actual dimension of reality for this reason, which then led me on to discover that matter needs time to exist just as much as time needs matter to exist.
Four Dimensional Space/Time. I have to admit, being self-taught in regards to my current understanding of cosmology and physics, this concept gave me lots of problems. But I eventually worked it out whilst pursuing other difficulties of understanding – namely, relativistic light speed. As I slowly built up a model of how everything worked in the universe, it became more and more clear to me, that everything is totally reliant on everything else to exist.
The current mainstream understanding as presented by Marv Cruzan is that time is not really a dimension, but matter IS made up of something real, something tangible. The other three dimensions of 4D space/time in other words. But I have come to the conclusion that this is not quite right. There are no such things as Height, Width & Depth when talking about the universe or the matter within that universe. These are not the three other dimensions of space/time.
So what do we really mean when we talk about four-dimensional space/time?
Lets start with this simple analogy. The Charlie Brown comic strip in the newspaper is made up of two physical dimensions: Height and Width. Let’s call this Two-Dimensional Space. If you then watch all the Peanuts characters in an animated cartoon on TV, you are basically watching Three-Dimensional Space/Time. Animation of motion being the third dimension of time. A shop window mannequin is a reasonable analogy for three-dimensional space without the fourth dimension of time (derived by relativistic motion). But you and I represent Four-Dimensional Space/Time as we are 3Dspace in motion.
But this doesn’t quite translate into reality. The reason for this is because of what I said earlier. The three dimensions of space are not height, width, and depth. They cannot be. As Marv Cruzan mentioned in his essay, there is no up or down outside of your own local relativistic "Neck-of-the-woods".
Secondly, everything in the universe is made up of lots of little round things. And all these little round things are also made up of lots of other little round things. I believe it is fundamentally naive to expect this NOT to go on and on forever in scale size in both directions of smaller and bigger. A circle can be reproduced with only the dimension of radius. A sphere needs only the one dimension of radius, plus the extra value that indicates it is a sphere and not a circle. This must mean that all matter has only two factors or dimensions. This is not quite right.
I describe the four physical dimensions of the universe as this.
Time cannot exist without Motion.
Motion cannot exist without Matter.
Matter cannot exist without Electric Fields.
Electric Fields cannot exist without Magnetic Fields.
In fact, they all need each other to exist in order to exist themselves. Cosmologically, this is a cat amongst the pigeons. The big bang is starting to look around nervously and clear its throat a lot.
If what I’m saying is true, then how could the big bang work? More importantly, I’m really saying that the universe is in fact a steady state universe. Always has been here – Always will. This is not directly a challenge to the big bang however, because the big bang theory still fits nicely within the parameters of this reality interpretation. It does, however, start to sweat when I talk about lasing, cosmological redshift, electromagnetic-force gravity and challenge the current interpretations of the famous two-hole experiment. I don’t have time to talk about these things today, but editor willing, I shall present them to you all at another time. Basically I see the wave interference pattern observed in the two slit experiment as evidence that the probability wave is actually what causes space/time curvature, gravity and special relativity, AND the uncertainty principle. But all in good time.
Now, to argue that time is not really part of the physical Universe as a fundamental reality state is to over-simplify reality. Take away any one of the FOUR dimensions I have listed above and what are you left with? You are left with a singularity.
This is what an event horizon is. It is the breakdown of one of these four dimensions I have listed. This is how a type-1 superconductor works. We create a temperature state so low that the electric/magnetic/motion/time matter that it is made of gets placed right on the edge of an event horizon. This is why we cannot get a superconductor to operate at high temperatures yet. We do not know how to stretch the event horizon far enough. A type-2 superconductor has somehow placed the electric and magnetic fields onto two separate 'planes' where they still have a duality relationship, but somehow no longer cause the ‘waste’ inefficiencies of resistance to both electric current flow and magnetic field strength and throw.
This is also why we cannot go below 4 degrees Kelvin. Any lower and we are breaking down reality by removing one of these physical dimensions. We are entering an event horizon and so the matter cannot exist any longer. We cannot force the matter into this ‘zone’ or ‘state’ because it needs a quantum leap boost in energy to achieve it. We still don’t know how to do this. How do you create non-energy?
As for time travel? To many people make the common mistake of referring to speed and distance in order to travel time. This is a common mistake, I have made it all my life. But I know see clearly that to travel time we have to travel along the "Electromagnetic Spectrum Highway". In other words, we have to shrink ourselves down in scale size and enter the micro-scale event horizon, alter our overall polarity and re-emerge in another point in space/time.
WHY? Because special relativity tells us that time slows down as we fly away into space from our earth. You could argue we are traveling in ‘distance’ to achieve this time dilation. But we are not. Space/time curvature ‘density’ gets less as we move away from the earth, this means we are relativistically shrinking, to everybody on earth (and vice/versa), it also means that time is slowing down for us relativistically and speeding up for everybody on earth (relativistically). This is actually what is preventing us from traveling time. Special relativity is also Distance/Size Duality.
So to put it simply, we need to increase in size while traveling away from the centre of a space/time curvature OR we need to decrease in size while traveling towards the centre of a space/time curvature, IF we want to be able to travel in time. Oh yes, we also need to pass through some form of an event horizon and NEVER EVER go on such a trip without beer in the fridge!
Glen Angus Graham email@example.com
Autodidactic Cosmologist, Adelaide, South Australia
Stress occurs when an individual finds themselves in a situation they have no control over, and the situation is NOT boosting their self-esteem. So it is basically a double edged sword. However, self-esteem is the more important factor.
Because the mind and body is a fundamentally simple device, that has a highly complex degree of interrelational factors that determine outcomes below the conscious level of our minds.
We are all born with what I classify as our Self-Esteem Needs Portfolio. This in turn is supported by what I classify as our self-esteem fuel tank. I talk about them as having a separate existence for now, but will not be surprised if it becomes apparent they are the one and the same.
As we travel through life, our Self-Esteem fuel tanks burn fuel to give us motivation, mental energy and the ability to focus and learn and fight for survival. But most importantly, our self-esteem fuel tank is the means, by way of feedback, that mother nature enables us to evolve. To understand this, you have to be able to follow my interrelational description of how Self-Esteem is important to humans. Lets hope I am able to explain it properly!
As I have mentioned, we burn fuel from our Self-Esteem fuel tank when we exert effort, but more relevant is the fact we burn fuel when we are stressed! We receive a 'top-up' to our self-esteem fuel tank every time we do something or experience something, that appeases our self-esteem needs portfolio. Our self-esteem needs portfolio is basically what determines our personalities (directly) and so can effect our ability to remain physically and mentally healthy (indirectly). Every thing we love, hate, like, think, feel, believe - all those words in the dictionary we use to describe a personality trait - are all driven by our self-esteem needs portfolio.
Our minds filter every thought we have through our self-esteem needs portfolio before it makes a choice or decision. When our self-esteem fuel tank is low, we find it hard to concentrate on something because it doesn't excite us and boost the energy levels in our minds. When our energy levels are low in our minds, it cuts us off from certain areas or abilities in our mind. This effectively reduces our IQ for however long our minds are in a reduced energy state. If we have a low self-esteem fuel tank and are engaged in something that DOES boost our self-esteem, then somehow our mind gets a second wind and switches into overdrive and we receive full access to all areas - thus resulting in a temporary boost in IQ.
SO, it is possible to "cram" for an IQ test. I have done it many times over my life.
Our minds are like the internet. When we receive input, we filter the information through our self-esteem needs portfolio, then the various answers we receive are place in an order of priority subject to our self-esteem needs portfolio. Just like the search results are listed in priority of relevance. When we are stressed, our self-esteem fuel tank is being taxed. We are burning fuel at an inefficient rate. This results in our mind not working properly, and so the search results priorities can be tainted. Mental illness is literally a self-esteem fuel tank/needs portfolio driven phenomena. Our personal resolve suffers when our self-esteem fuel tank runs low.
I believe, this data gets backed up every two weeks or so when ever our cells replace themselves. Every cell has our genes, our genetic blueprint. When they regenerate and replace themselves, the data that cell was born with is superimposed with the accumulative data the cell received via its two week lifetime. This averaged result is the new base level of data for the new cell. It not only contains self-esteem data, but physical data as well i.e., metabolism, exercise, etc....
When we conceive our offspring, the male and female data that is in each set of genes at the time of conception is then superimposed together to create the base level data for the genes in the offspring. Thus it is possible to program the self-esteem needs portfolio of your children. Remembering that the laws of wave superimposed entail a possibility for waveforms to be reflected at the end of a rope and come back in a negative state!! This is how two successful parents can have offspring that doesn't follow in their footsteps as such. But most importantly, if you have lived a life of stress, it can be passed on to your offspring, and even amplified if your partners genes data is such that once superimposed with yours, it produces a child with an extreme self-esteem needs portfolio.
The need for mother nature to have this feedback system is this. Stress in the old days meant no food, no water, no shelter from the elements or from predators etc. As we evolved, the form that stress could take on also evolved. Especially as we became more social and established pecking orders, jealousy, greed and so forth. Mother nature designed self-esteem into us to help the offspring adjust to a changing environment. Sometimes however, some offspring would be so altered that they cannot survive. Some local environments would also alter too quickly for the local humans to survive the changes through genetic feedback.
Continuous stress is natures way of telling the species that something is fundamentally wrong with the way things are going. OR more to the point, major changes have occurred in your local environment. WARNING, take control of your local environment or move out of your local environment!
Stress can be passed on via the self-esteem fuel tank and needs portfolio. This weakens the inherent stability of the cells throughout the lifeform and can also effect the cells ability to seamlessly reproduce themselves. IE: Error may creep in in the form of mutations. Also, stress could actually weaken the integrity of the cells and molecules such they become more susceptible to radiation contamination. Either way, it is quite possible that stress could have a direct effect on cellular growth and reproduction.
This is also consistent with the fact that a lot of these diseases are hereditary. It may not be so much the fact the defect data is passed on in the cells. It may be that the stress that 'allows' the defect to occur is what is effectively passed on through hereditary means. IE: Genes are fine until a certain age, simply due to the time it takes for the stress to undermine the integrity of that gene.
So, stress may actually be the trigger of all genetic malfunctions within the human system. How much of this is relevant to other creatures on this planet?
Glen Angus Graham
12 Wilsden Street, Walkerville South Australia 5081
P.S. I am also developing the theory that 'stress data' can be handed on to our off-spring via 'DNA genetic data backup'.
This is also what helps evolution in the complex interrelational game of natural selection....
Email comments/questions to: firstname.lastname@example.org
© Journal of Theoretics, Inc. 2002