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1879 (1 to 50)<< 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 >>
 


Explanation of How the Speed of Light May be Exceeded without Violating the Requirement of Infinite Energy

(2016)

Jan Olof Jonson




(1 pages)
Keywords: Special Relativity Theory, Lorentz transformation for velocities larger than the speed of light, exceeding the speed of light possible, Uncertainty Relation

Lookup: special relativity theory (12), theory (173), relativity (390), special (175), light (157), speed (58), lorentz (73), transformation (31), relation (5), uncertainty (8), velocities (6)

Abstract:

The paper proposes an explanation to the problem of exceeding the speed of light, discussed in a paper by
Hill and Cox, who have made an extensive calculation of how the Lorentz transformation might be applicable to
velocities larger than the speed of light, provided it would be possible. The solution focuses on the fact that when
a moving body, due to the Lorentz transformation, becomes increasingly smaller, the Uncertainiy Principle may
be applicable, causing thus velocities larger than speed of light to appear.




Stellar Metamorphosis: XO-3b the Eccentric Star

(2013)

Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
1407 North Lakemont Drive, Cocoa, FL 32922, United States; jeffrey.wolynski@yahoo.com, 321 258 9824



(2 pages)
Keywords: exoplanets, stars, planets, stellar metamorphosis, universe, extraterrestrials, dogma, censorship

Lookup: universe (60), stars (13), planets (8), stellar (14)

Abstract:

In stellar metamorphosis it is explained what is happening to the star XO-3b, as the establishment does not have an explanation for its eccentric orbit. This aging star has falsified the establishment’s dogma for planet formation via proto-planetary disk with its eccentric orbit but is consistently ignored because it threatens careers and the status quo.




Stellar Metamorphosis: Young Stars are Large Ball Lightning

(2013)

Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
1407 North Lakemont Drive, Cocoa, FL 32922, United States; jeffrey.wolynski@yahoo.com, 321 258 9824



(1 pages)

Abstract:

 

Another assumption needs to be made to save astrophysics from stellar fusion mind virus. It is hypothesized that stars are ball lightning on large scales. Stars are electrical phenomenon that are electromagnetic in nature and do not resemble or represent in any way the wrong mind virus mathematical models of the 18th-20th centuries.




Defining Drift Current

(2011)






Keywords: NewtonG, Velocitysquared, Driftcurrent, Maxwell, Electrons, Electricity

Lookup: electricity (8), electron (46), maxwell (22)

Abstract:

Drift current is defined as a product of two velocities cv. The flow of electrons is an incorrect definition of electricity.




Defining Drift Current

(2011)






Keywords: NewtonG, Velocitysquared, Driftcurrent, Maxwell, Electrons, Electricity

Lookup: electricity (8), electron (46), maxwell (22)

Abstract:

Drift current is defined as a product of two velocities cv. The flow of electrons is an incorrect definition of electricity.




CAUSE OF GRAVITY – DISRUPTION OF INTERMOLECULAR BONDS

(2016)

Rajendra Sendhabhai Prajapati




(1 pages)
Keywords: Surface Energy, Intermolecular Bonds, Absolute Pressure, Vacuum Drag, Half Sphere, Conservation of Energy

Lookup: conservation of energy (6), energy (303), vacuum (39), absolute (26), conservation (25), pressure (4), sphere (3), drag (4), intermolecular (2), surface (2)

Abstract:

Abstract: Gravity is considered as one of the four fundamental forces, but it is not been unified with the other fundamental forces. Scientists are clueless about the weakness of gravity. There are number of scientists who feel that there must be a physical mechanism for gravity which causes only attraction. Below hypothesis uses surface energy that quantifies the disruption of inter molecular bonds that occurs when a surface is created. Consider the Earth floating in the universe and full vacuum on outside. Here, average molecule inside it is saturated by the bonding. The molecules on the surface cannot be fully saturated by bonding. So, they pulled inward. This creates positive absolute internal pressure. Here, this thermodynamic phenomenon leads to Young-Laplace theory that is “If no force acts normal to a tensioned surface, the surface remains flat”. Same logic may be predicted by Einstein in general relativity. Here, instead of mass, absolute internal pressure differs from outside full vacuum, this pressure difference times projected area results in a normal force [1]. Here, Earth atmospheric pressure tends to balance it. This means variation in atmospheric pressure influences gravity value [2]. The remained absolute internal pressure still to be balanced which causes inward vacuum drag that attracts objects towards the Earth that is known as gravity. This hypothesis answers why Einstein's theory confirms most of tests and why it significantly changes at distances smaller than an atom. That is because surface energy concept in the limit of a single molecule not works.



Abstract:

Electric current is a measure of motion of atoms and 186-ether. An impact force of current squared causes copper atoms in a wire to drift at Maxwell’s drift velocity. There is another drift of 186-ether particles caused by the force of current squared. Current is not the flow of electrons. The measure of charge is that of atoms and 186-ether. Electrons are just one example of a measure of charge.




The Root Assumption of All Geophysics and Geology

(2013)

Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
1407 North Lakemont Drive, Cocoa, FL 32922, United States; jeffrey.wolynski@yahoo.com, 321 258 9824


Keywords: geology, rocks, minerals, gas, plasma, stellar metamorphosis, star evolution, planet formation

Lookup: plasma (17), gas (15), evolution (13), star (17), stellar (14), formation (5), planet (2)

Abstract:

The most basic assumption in all of geophysics and geology is the consensus that the Earth has always been solid and liquid rock. The reality is that the Earth was not always solid/liquid rocks it was a giant ball of plasma and gas much earlier in its life, much larger than its current diameter.



Stellar Metamorphosis: Stars Obey Mass-Energy Equivalence

(2013)

Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
1407 North Lakemont Drive, Cocoa, FL 32922, United States; jeffrey.wolynski@yahoo.com, 321 258 9824



(2 pages)
Keywords: stellar metamorphosis, rocks, minerals, plasma, chemistry, mass, energy

Lookup: energy (303), plasma (17), chemistry (3), mass (94), stellar (14)

Abstract:

 

 In stellar metamorphosis stars obey the mass-energy equivalence principle. This means as a star radiates it loses mass. As it loses mass it will shrink and cool. Explanation is provided.




Errors Before Einstein

(2016)

John-Erik Persson
john.erik.persson@gmail.com



(4 pages)
Keywords: gravity, ether, Pioneer anomaly.

Lookup: gravity (124), aether (102), pioneer anomaly (4), pioneer (7), anomaly (6)

Abstract:

Serious interpretational errors regarding stellar aberration and MMX have existed for many decades. This created the existing chaotic situation in physics long time before SRT was invented. By disregarding old tests and focus on what we have in atomic clocks, GPS and the Pioneer anomaly we can find solutions based on conventional physics.




A Few Discoveries Over A Lifetime

(2015)






Keywords: Boltzmann, Einstein, Gammafactor, Temperature, Gravity

Lookup: gravity (124), einstein (54), boltzmann (2), temperature (8)

Abstract:

The discoveries mentioned are from experiment.




Decoding the Induction Process

(2014)






Keywords: Capacitance, Inductance, Electromagnetism, Electricity, Farads, Pendulum

Lookup: electromagnetism (33), electricity (8), pendulum (7)

Abstract:

The real meaning of Inductance and Capacitance is revealed via experiment.




No Big Bang

(2013)






Keywords: Bigbang, Hydrogen, Rydberg, Gravity, CMBR, Frequency, Temperature, Blackbody

Lookup: gravity (124), hydrogen (30), frequency (10), rydberg (6), cmbr (4), blackbody (2), temperature (8)

Abstract:

The CMBR is attributed to the frequency of a Rydberg photon. The Rydberg photon is the source of the Rydberg constant in the H-atom spectrum. CMBR is from Hydrogen in stars. Not from a Big Bang.




Temperature Defined

(2014)






Keywords: Temperature, Kelvin, Electronvolts

Lookup: temperature (8)

Abstract:

Temperature is now defined as electron volts.




Stellar Metamorphosis: An Alternative for the Star Sciences

(2012)

Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
1407 North Lakemont Drive, Cocoa, FL 32922, United States; jeffrey.wolynski@yahoo.com, 321 258 9824



(5 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States

Abstract:

This paper explains that planetary formation is stellar evolution. Planets are ancient stars and stars are young planets.





(year unknown)

Dan Romalo
Str. Brezoianu (Rigas) 29-B Apt. 40, Bucharest 010155, Romania; dan_romalo@rdslink.ro, +40-0213144602







The Point of Unification in Theoretical Physics

(2013)

Prof. James E. Beichler
PO Box 624, Belpre, OH 45714, United States; jebco1st@aol.com



(10 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Single Field Theory, unification, quantum, quantized space-tme, Einstein, Kaluza, Clifford

Lookup: quantum (151), einstein (54), unification (28), theory (173), field (99), space (104)

Abstract:

It would seem to many physicists that the unification of physics within a single paradigmatic theory has been the primary goal in science for only the past few decades, but this would not be true. Unification was the original goal of Einstein and a few other physicists from the 1920s to the 1960s, before quantum theorists began to think in terms of unification. However, both approaches are basically flawed because they are individually incomplete as they now stand. Had either side of the controversy just simplified their worldview and sought commonality between the two, unification would have been accomplished long ago. The point is, literally, that the discrete quantum, continuous relativity, basic physical geometry and classical physics all share one common characteristic – a paradoxical duality between a dimensionless point and an extended length in any dimension – and if the problem of unification is approached from an understanding of how this problem relates to each paradigm all of physics could be unified under a single new theoretical paradigm.




FuturePossible Energy/Paradigm Revolutions from Ultra-cold Matter and nanoscience discoveries: historical context of current research and overview of developing trends

(2013)

Donald Reed





Abstract:

In the last three decades, the confluence of two streams of research have resulted in some of the most heretofore unknown innovative, energy-transformative and potential paradigm-shifting developments in the history of science and technology. These are due to both the fruits of the nano-science revolution and those stemming from ultra-cold matter applications as exemplified by the Bose-Einstein condensate. Through examining a wealth of specific research results from each of these areas, some of surprisingly serendipitous nature, this paper will attempt to show that many of the discoveries that have been made in these arenas point to possible new understanding of the quantum engine that underpins physical reality, and its relationship to electromagnetism and gravitation at both microscopic and large-scale regimes of nature. It is hoped that ultimately this new knowledge will subsequently also guide us in achieving the coveted goal in our quest to harvest energy from the quantum vacuum.




Mass Rotation Controls Orbiting

(2013)

Paul Schroeder
8244 Anna Avenue, Wind Lake, WI 53185, United States; pshrodr8@aol.com, 262-895-6586




Abstract:

Prior to the development of physics as a science it was sufficient to have motion that offsets a perpendicular gravitational force and continues forever.  The total absence of any friction could be assigned to the ‘void’ of space.  But perpetual motion and empty space are now seen as fallacies.  Continuous motion needs a driving force for impetus.




Interpreting Why Triple-Adjusted Planck Unit Observable Fundamental Properties Are Simple Powers Of ?(2?c/?)

(2013)

Michael Jefferson Lawrence
Cranfield Park, Burstall, Ipswich, Suffolk ip8 3dt, United Kingdom; mike@mlawrence.co.uk, +441473652038



(5 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Gravitational constant; Planck constant; Planck units; SI units; Dimensionality; Parameters; unification.

Lookup: quantum (151), einstein (54), unification (28), theory (173), field (99), space (104), gravity (124), unification (28), planck (15)

Abstract:

This paper follows on from earlier papers which eliminated four important constants of nature, Planck’s constant h, the Gravitational constant , Permeability and Boltsmann’s constant by showing, after adjusting misaligned S.I. units, that they are only dimensionless ratios. Shown here is the interpretation of what it means that the relative values in any units of all of the observable set of TAPU parameters can be described simply as powers of the ratio theta = sqrt(2 Pi c/a), where c is the speed of light and a the fine structure constant.




Gravitation

(2013)

Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
1407 North Lakemont Drive, Cocoa, FL 32922, United States; jeffrey.wolynski@yahoo.com, 321 258 9824



(1 pages)

Abstract:

 

This paper explains that gravitation is radiation itself. Gravitation being an independent force separate from thermodynamics is ad hoc mathematical conjecture.




Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy

(2013)

Barry John Setterfield
barryjsetterfield@gmail.com, www.setterfield.org



(465 pages)
Keywords: : Zero Point Energy (ZPE); SED physics; vacuum properties; atomic constants; speed of light; atomic time; atomic rest masses; red shifts; plasma physics; planetary geology; fossil gigantism; bio-elect

Lookup: quantum (151), einstein (54), unification (28), theory (173), field (99), space (104), gravity (124), unification (28), planck (15), energy (303), vacuum (39), speed (58), plasma (17), planetary (16), atomic (14), point (20), zero (16), red (9), rest (5)

Abstract:

In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about  The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics consideredthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence, despite the evidence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach that recognized areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meanalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for both plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy says gravity began to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then vast amounts of time are needed to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies found at the frontiers of the universe.

An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was also much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

 




A New Theory for Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Classical Electrostatics Contradicting Maxwell?s Electromagnetism

(2013)

Jan Olof Jonson




(4 pages)
Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation, wave-particle paradox, Coulomb's law, Amp?re's law, Lorentz transformation, Faraday's induction law, Poynting vector, Orbiting electrons

Lookup: electromagnetic radiation (4), lorentz transformation (22), law (61), particle (38), electron (46), radiation (40), wave (35), electromagnetic (46), lorentz (73), transformation (31), vector (8), induction (9), paradox (31), coulomb (6), faraday (4), amp?re (3)

Abstract:

In this paper it is shown that the energy due to electromagnetic radiation, which has thus far been as-cribed the Poynting vector, based on Maxwell’s Equations, may instead be derived using Coulomb’s law as the basis. Since the common opinion among scientists has been that Maxwell’s systematic description of electromagnetism is consistent with classical electricity described by Coulomb´s Law, a need has been felt to closer explore the differences. It has al-ready been published a number of papers on this subject, but the theoretical basis for a new approach will now be more rigorously defined. The fallacies of the commonly recognized Maxwell electromagnetism appear in five cases, which have already been explored rigorously in other papers.

Describing the event during which a light quanta is released from an atom, thereafter hitting a target at-om, using the most simplistic model, with a single electron orbiting around a positive nucleus, it may be suitable to model the orbiting electron as an electric current. This can be stated also about the target atom. Hence, there are two currents being involved, just as in the case of electric induction.

During stable circumstances, the electron does not radiate, since the circular movement is perpendicular to the radial electric force from the positive nucleus, an argument that is supported by Compton, but denied by Bohr.

The de-excitation of an orbit electron can be de-scribed, applying Coulombs’ law on the process when it interacts with an orbit electron of another atom. An appropriate mathematical model based on induction is proposed, a model that fits with the ambiguous ‘wave-particle paradox’.

Embedded in this model is a new understanding the photon, which has already been explained in earlier papers. The so-called wave-particle paradox is only expressing two mathematical properties of the orbiting motion during the process of electron de-excitation.This paper challenges dissidents to escape the mainstream cage of theories imposed by fiat and adopt a science epistemology based on consistent logic and the scientific method of empirical proof by falsifiability.  The Fizeau and Sagnac results will be revisited and analyzed afresh to reach two conclusions that shake the foundations of belief in cosmic architecture and composition. The Absolute Lab frame and Flexible Aether model will be shown to be consistent and supported by all experiments examined to date. This support includes tests that extend Sagnac to linear motion and mechanics, the key results of Michelson & Morley/Gale, and classic aether tests.  Establishment claims that support the Earth’s rotation, revolution and translation will be subjected to logic and the scientific method. Consequences of the ALFA paradigm will be outlined.




Explanation of twin paradox according to the Euclidean Reality model

(2013)

Witold Nawrot
Lokalna 13, 04-903 Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Poland; witek@hanakom.pl, +48 501493827, www.astercity.net/~witnaw



(3 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: time dilation, relativity, twin paradox

Lookup: relativity (390), twin paradox (11), time dilation (19), time (100), paradox (31), twin (11), dilation (23)

Abstract:

The Four dimensional Euclidean Reality model clearly explains why during the uniform, rectilinear motion, the time dilation effect is symmetrical for both twins, and why and when the time dilation is eventually measured in a system of one of the travelling twin.




New philosophy of Aether in Euclidean Reality model and interpretation of indications of Sagnac and MM interferometers.

(2013)

Witold Nawrot
Lokalna 13, 04-903 Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Poland; witek@hanakom.pl, +48 501493827, www.astercity.net/~witnaw



(2 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Aether, relativity, Sagnac, Michelson-Morley

Lookup: relativity (390), aether (102), sagnac (21), michelson (4)

Abstract:

According to the new model of Four dimensional Euclidean Reality, motion of bodies in relation to Aether and relative motion of bodies are two separate phenomena, therefore there is no necessity for introducing the idea of “entrained Aether”. According to this model, the MM and Sagnac interferometers are not able to detect any motion in relation to Aether, however the rule of propagation of light, introduced by the new model, explains the difference between indications of these two interferometers.




MSEE

(2013)

Jan Olof Jonson




(2 pages)
Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation, Coulomb's Law, Induction Law, Ampere's Law, Li?nard-Wiechert Potentials

Lookup: electromagnetic radiation (4), law (61), radiation (40), electromagnetic (46), induction (9), coulomb (6), potentials (2)

Abstract:

In this paper it is shown that the energy due to electromagnetic radiation, which has thus far been ascribed the Poynting vector, based on Maxwell’s Equations, may instead be derived using Coulomb’s law as the basis. Since the common opinion among scientists has been that Maxwell’s systematic description of electromagnetism is consistent with classical electricity described by Coulomb´s Law, a need has been felt to closer explore the differences. It has already been published a number of papers on this subject by this author, but the theoretical basis for a new approach will now be more rigorously defined.

 

The fallacies of the commonly recognized Maxwell electromagnetism appear in five cases, which have been explored rigorously in other papers by this author:

-Ampère’s bridge: Coulomb’ law explains the Ampère’s bridge experiment, the Lorentz’ force does not.

-Coulomb’ law and the Continuity Equation of Electricity explain electromagnetic induction, whereas the ‘Induction Law’ does not

-The Liénard-Wiechert potentials have been fallaciously derived; hence, a cornerstone of the today’s electromagnetic theory has been removed

-The attractive electromagnetic force between two parallel electric currents can be derived using Coulomb’s law, provided a relativistic interpretation is being performed; hence, the Lorentz force is not needed.

-Ampère’s law is not consistent with the Lorentz force; hence, there is no harmony between the ’classics’ of electromagnetism.

The success in refuting the established theories, simultaneously replacing them with the new one according to the interpretation of this author, constitutes the justification for questioning also the rest of electromagnetism, and in the case of electromagnetic radiation this is being done in the following:

 

Describing the event during which a light quanta is released from an atom, thereafter hitting a target atom, using the most simplistic model, with a single electron orbiting around a positive nucleus, it may be suitable to model the orbiting electron as an electric current. This can be stated also about the target atom. Hence, there are two currents being involved, just as in the case of electric induction.

During stable circumstances, the electron does not radiate, since the circular movement is perpendicular to the radial electric force from the positive nucleus, an argument that is supported by Compton, but denied by Bohr.

When a de-excitation of an orbit electron occurs, it implies that the current must have a nonzero time differential. This varying current will in turn induce a current at another atom, the target. The time that this requires is very short. An appropriate mathematical model is proposed, a model that fits with the ambiguous ‘wave-particle paradox’.

The basis for the new theory is the discovery that Coulomb’s law alone is able to account for the electromagnetic force between electric currents, provided that the differences in propagation delay between the different parts of the conductors are accurately being taken into account, a phenomenon that is often denoted retardation.

The new interpretation of electromagnetic induction enables to accurately estimating the electric effect that the de-excitation of an outer shell atomic electron gives rise to at a target atom, and, accordingly the electric energy may be derived.

Embedded in this model is also a new understanding of what a photon really is, which has already been explained in earlier papers. The so-called wave-particle paradox only expresses two mathematical properties of the orbiting motion during the process of electron de-excitation.





(year unknown)

Jan Olof Jonson








Comments on ?Frontier experiments: Tough science- Five experiments as hard as finding the Higgs?

(year unknown)

Prof. Zifeng Li
Petroleum Engineering Department, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004, China; zfli@ysu.edu.cn, +86 (0335) 8079211, blog.sina.com.cn/u/1459595284




Abstract:

The five frontier experiments published in Nature are commented item by item: spotting distant signs of life, seeing through the molecular mirror, looking for extra dimensions, catching a gravity wave, redefining the kilogram. It is concluded that the first two experiments are great ideals that are impossible to realize in recent years, the last three are false theories pulling physics into morass.




Comments on Frontier experiments- Tough science- Five experiments as hard as finding the Higgs

(2013)

Prof. Zifeng Li
Petroleum Engineering Department, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004, China; zfli@ysu.edu.cn, +86 (0335) 8079211, blog.sina.com.cn/u/1459595284




Abstract:

The five frontier experiments published in Nature are commented item by item: spotting distant signs of life, seeing through the molecular mirror, looking for extra dimensions, catching a gravity wave, redefining the kilogram. It is concluded that the first two experiments are great ideals that are impossible to realize in recent years, the last three are false theories pulling physics into morass.




Gravitons, the Speed of Gravity, and the Generalized Newton Gravitational Law

(2013)

Dr. Jerry Hynecek
Isetex, Inc., Pampa Drive, Allen, TX 75013, United States; jhynecek@netscape.net, 972-396-4925



(6 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: speed of gravity, aether, dark matter, stability of the planetary orbits, Newton third law of action and reaction, gravitons, generalized Newton gravitational law, aberration of gravity, barycenter

Lookup: aether (102), dark matter (12), gravitons (5), speed of gravity (2), gravity (124), law (61), matter (67), dark (21), newton (32), speed (58), reaction (5), action (17), planetary (16), orbits (6), aberration (16), stability (3), generalized (2)

Abstract:

In many publications and web forum discussions the claims are constantly being made that in order for the orbits of planets around the Sun to be stable the gravity must propagate at much higher speeds than the speed of light c. In this paper it is shown on a simple and extreme example of the two stars orbiting around each other in a circular orbit that this is not the case and that the assumption about the necessity for the large speed of gravity is unfounded. The explanation is based on the recognition that the Newton gravitational force has the two components that are not necessarily collinear. This new fundamental finding is supported by modeling the field by gravitons that mediate the force of the field. This model finally leads to the generalization of the Newton gravitational law that correctly accounts for the finite speed of gravity. From this result it is also found that the gravitational aberration angle is identical with the aberration angle of light, but is aiming in the opposite direction, lagging behind the source of the gravitational attraction.




2013 Planck data reveals non-Copernican universe: nullifies Big Bang inflation theory

(2013)

Dr. Robert A. Sungenis
14413 Walnut Loop, Greencastle, PA 17225-9459, United States; CAIRomeo@aol.com, 717-597-8670, www.catholicintl.com/aboutus/b-robert.htm



(16 pages)

Abstract:

This paper shows that the data released on March 21, 2013 from the 2009 Planck probe of the European Space Agency confirms the data from the 1989 COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) and the 2001 WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) of NASA that the universe is not isotropic and homogeneous on large scales; rather, it displays a marked anisotropy and inhomogeneity, therefore nullify the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) interpretation of Einstein’s field equations that proposed isotropy and homogeneity; as well as falsifying the “inflation” theory originated in 1980 by Alan Guth as a solution to the “horizon problem,” as well as nullifying the need for Dark Matter and Dark Energy to propel expansion, as well as revealing by distinct positioning of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole harmonics of the CMB (cosmic microwave background radiation) that the famed “Axis of Evil” connecting the rim of the universe with the Earth can no longer be considered a mere artefact but is indeed in the data and shows that the CMB dipole intersects the quadrupole/octupole at the Earth’s ecliptic and equinoxes, respectively, therefore putting the Earth in a central and non-Copernican place in the universe. 




Testing a mechanical behavior of Colors

(2013)

Luiz Eduardo Azambuja Sauerbronn
Av. Athos Da Silveira Ramos, 149, CT - Bloco D - Sala 101, Rio De Janeiro, RJ 21941-909, Brazil; lsauer@ufrj.br, 21 2562-8052



(6 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Rigid Bodies, Collisions, Colors, Radiation, Quantum decay.

Lookup: radiation (40), collisions (4), rigid bodies (2), quantum (151), decay (11), rigid (2), bodies (4)

Abstract:

We model photons as being rigid bodies. Based only on Newtonian mechanics, we simulate numerically collisions of photons and atoms. The rigid bodies used for photons are spherical and their center of mass and centroid are not coincident. Thus, each rigid body (photon) describes a cycloid (presenting amplitude, frequency and phase) as well as the DeBroglie wave. The numerical results indicate not only a predominant color for each given surface but also a time of response very similar to time spent on quantum decay.




The God Computer

(2013)

Franklin Hu
franklinhu@yahoo.com, franklinhu.com/theory.html



(4 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: universe computer binary John Archibald fqxi essay it from bit

Lookup: radiation (40), collisions (4), rigid bodies (2), quantum (151), decay (11), rigid (2), bodies (4), john (3), universe (60), binary (12)

Abstract:

     In 1990, the physicist John Archibald Wheeler suggested that every particle, every field of force, even the space-time continuum itself can be described as being derived as part of an apparatus or machine which handles binary data. This means that the entire universe could be nothing more than an elaborate digital computer – God’s computer. This paper explores the idea that it is possible to break down all of the complex physical observations we see in the world to actions which are only binary in nature. This will be done by postulating a digital space which runs with minimal rules and reproduces the behavior of empty space and positrons and electrons. From there, the rest of the particles and fields of force are derived.




Comments on ?Frontier experiments: Tough science- Five experiments as hard as finding the Higgs?

(2013)

Prof. Zifeng Li
Petroleum Engineering Department, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004, China; zfli@ysu.edu.cn, +86 (0335) 8079211, blog.sina.com.cn/u/1459595284




Abstract:

The five frontier experiments published in Nature are commented item by item: spotting distant signs of life, seeing through the molecular mirror, looking for extra dimensions, catching a gravity wave, redefining the kilogram. It is concluded that the first two experiments are great ideals that are impossible to realize in recent years, the last three are false theories pulling physics into morass.




Gravity, Magnetism and Light

(2013)

Dr. Ralph Sansbury




(10 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Light, Gravity, Magnetism, Electric Dipoles, Relativity, Quanta, Exchange Forces.

Lookup: relativity (390), gravity (124), quanta (4), light (157), magnetism (14), electric (45), forces (11)

Abstract:

A basic theory is described that leads to classical explanations of Modern Physics. The basic theory is that magnetism is due to electric dipoles inside atomic nuclei and inside electrons. For example in parallel current carrying wires, the dipoles are produced by the current driving field in each wire causing a transverse elliptization of the circular orbit of a small charged particle around an oppositely charged central core so that there is a displacement of centers of negative and positive charge forming an electric dipole. Thus parallel current carrying wires are attracted to each other by the billions of small attractively oriented transverse electric dipoles in the billions of atomic nuclei and free electrons in each cubic millimeter of the wires. Thus collinear dipoles along radii of planets and stars, produced by their spinning account for their gravitational force.




How the Earth Made its Oil

(2013)

Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
1407 North Lakemont Drive, Cocoa, FL 32922, United States; jeffrey.wolynski@yahoo.com, 321 258 9824



(1 pages)
Keywords: rocks, minerals, oil, natural gas, rain, condensation, metamorphosis, stars, planets

Lookup: stars (13), planets (8), natural (10), gas (15)

Abstract:

 

This paper explains how Earth formed its oil.




The Relativistic Space-Time Perspective

(2013)

David G. Taylor
10528 - 128 Street, Edmonton, AB T5N 1W4, Canada; dgtaylor@telusplanet.net, www.relativistic-perspective.com/



(12 pages)

2015, 1st Annual Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference
Keywords: Perspective, Physical Values, Relativistic Distortion, distorted Velocity, parallel relativistic equations, Time, Mass, Length, equation confirmation table

Lookup: time (100), mass (94), length (9), physical (23), equation (24), equations (52), velocity (55), relativistic (33), distortion (2), parallel (3)

Abstract:

This paper formulates additional Relativistic equations.  They do not contradict Special Relativity.  They examine the deductions of Dr. Einstein from a relativistically distorted perspective.  It reasons that the REAL||non-Relativistic velocity value can be distorted just as the Length|Time|Mass values are.  The equations examine the both the true/Real (not Special Relativistically Distorted||noSRD) Velocity of an object and use it to determine the distorted (Special Relativistically Distorted||SRD) Velocity for the same object.  It also derives opposite equations that calculate the noSRD velocity [VelocitynoSRD] from the SRD velocity [VelocitySRD]. 
 
A Relativistically distorted observation point would not perceive local actions moving more slowly.  Rather everything outside moving faster.  Fewer seconds for a Relativistic Perspective that has distortion means the perspective equations have a different relation.  They calculate the higher Velocity perceived from a distorted viewpoint.
 
Two example equations show the relation of two points of view.  The independent variables have no Relativistic deformation |VelocitynoSRD|; dependent variable would be the value||velocity reasoned to be observed because of the Relativistic deformation |VelocitySRD|. 
 
VelocitySRD = VelocitynoSRD/(1 - VelocitynoSRD 2/c2)½
 
Less Time will go by when there is a relativistic deformation, so Velocity will appear distorted just as Length/Time/Mass are.  The inverse relation would be where the independent variable is observed Velocity from the Relativistic or distorted view |VelocitySRD|.  The dependent variable would then be True/non-Relativistic/non-distorted Velocity |VelocitynoSRD|.  The parallel equation for that Relativistic Perspective:  
 
VelocitynoSRD= VelocitySRD /(1 + VelocitySRD 2/c2)½
 
This relationship allows the additional development of 8 formula/equations for Velocity, Mass, Time, and Linear deformation.  These equations are all of the two Perspectives.  
 
The equations developed in this paper are an absolute advance, but are more “housekeeping” advances than significant ones.  Though they do lead to parallel equations in General Relativity that will have considerable Cosmological significance in a later submission.



Accelerating Clocks Run Faster and Slower

(2015)

Dr. Raymond H. Gallucci PE




(3 pages)

2015, 1st Annual Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Conference
Keywords: time invariance, relativity, light speed, accelerated motion

Lookup: relativity (390), light speed (6), time (100), motion (71), light (157), speed (58), invariance (14)

Abstract:

Einstein’s relativity contends that time, as measured by clocks, slows with increasing speed, becoming especially noticeable as the speed of light is approached.  Discussions of this usually focus on constant speeds, albeit near the speed of light, and phenomena such as muon decay (near light speed), or even the Hafele-Keating experiment (at much slower speeds), are cited as ‘proof.’  Dissident scientists often contend that time remains invariant, although clocks may appear to run slower at increasing speeds.  At least one such scientist contends that accelerated clocks can run both slower and faster, an interesting departure that I decided to examine via some examples.  To the extent that my examples are correct, I too would agree with this conjecture, namely that, while time remains invariant, clocks can run faster and slower when accelerated (but not at constant velocity).




Time Dilation in Relativity

(2013)

Dr. Raymond H. Gallucci PE




(3 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States

Abstract:

The following is an attempt to explain that time dilation in relativity is an apparent phenomenon only, i.e., when one frame moves relative to another at a constant speed, it only appears that its clock runs slower than the other. In the first (simple) case, the box remains stationary. In the second, it moves horizontally at speed = 0.5c. By having lights flash simultaneously at the ends of the box, the “photos” that reach the observers (at positions = 0 in each frame) record simultaneous positions for comparison to determine the “true” box length because both photos are taken at the same time, even though they do not reach the observers simultaneously. Each photo records the light flash and the corresponding positions and times in both frames when the flash occurred. The conclusion drawn from this analysis is that, whether or not reference frames are moving relative to one another, time does not vary – any such variation is apparent only.




Space and Time

(2013)

John Linus OSullivan




(3 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Space and Time, Electromagnetic Field, Infinity.

Lookup: infinity (3), electromagnetic field (3), field (99), space (104), time (100), electromagnetic (46)

Abstract:

Abstract: How did the universe come into existence? This very question cannot be asked because everything came from energy without time. If the energy was not always there as time, then nothing would exist to ask. With this in mind, timeless energy and cause of action is explained outside the realm of time and matter where the speed of light is constant relative to matter but is standing relative to time. Magnetic field waves are shown as gravity force in the electric field and are curved from mass in space-time.




Universal Fractal Flow: PLASMA to plasma

(2013)

Natalie Nagel
simplescience@hush.com, 604-535-7139




2013, NPA Members Meeting - Planning for the 20th Annual Conference in Maryland in July, United States
Keywords: Plasma, Water, Living Systems, Quantum Coherence, Fractals

Lookup: plasma (17), water (21), quantum (151), systems (10), coherence (7)

Abstract:

Eight patterns, such as spiraling and branching, are repeated, scaled up and down, from spiral galaxies to jellyfish, and from electrical discharges on Mars to dendrites in the brain.  99% of the known universe is plasma.  99% of the molecules in the human body is H2O.  Electron flow, from the non-living to the living, from light-year distances to cellular distances, self-organizes, self-sustains and self-corrects. This data-based Universal Fractal Flow model unifies Talbott and Thornhill's Electric Universe and Ho's Quantum Coherence with the electric universe in you.  Electromagnetism is a thousand, billion, billion, billion, billion times greater than gravity. This is the power that living systems, including the human body, uses to self-heal.




Accepted Relativistic Addition of Velocities and Energies are Only Two-Variable Versions of a New Infinite Variables Formula

(2013)

Michael Jefferson Lawrence
Cranfield Park, Burstall, Ipswich, Suffolk ip8 3dt, United Kingdom; mike@mlawrence.co.uk, +441473652038



(4 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Relativity; Velocities; Energies; Addition; Product;

Abstract:

The well-known simple formula for adding velocities relativistically is only a 2-variable version of a far more powerful formula which enables an infinite number of relative velocities, energies or any Planck-limited variables to be totalled. That formula is based on the product of those variables, treated as fields, rather than their addition. The interpretation of the formula is of the comparison of the stretching of the fields in opposite directions versus the total stretching involved.




Testing a Mechanical Behavior of Light Reflection

(2013)

Luiz Eduardo Azambuja Sauerbronn
Av. Athos Da Silveira Ramos, 149, CT - Bloco D - Sala 101, Rio De Janeiro, RJ 21941-909, Brazil; lsauer@ufrj.br, 21 2562-8052



(5 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: Rigid Bodies, Collisions, Light, Reflection, Quantum decay

Lookup: light (157), collisions (4), rigid bodies (2), reflection (5), quantum (151), decay (11), rigid (2), bodies (4)

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to study the behavior of light reflection and provide a mechanical resemblance of this behavior. In a laboratory , we measured the time spent from the launch of a pulse of photons and their return to the location of the emitted pulse, after colliding against the surface of an atom. In the numerical analysis, we modeled photons and atoms as being spherical and non-homogeneous rigid bodies. Due to the non-uniform internal mass distribution, the centroid and the center of mass of the photons will be shifted. While the center of mass tends to describe a straight line, the centroid tends to describe a cycloid rotating towards the center of mass. Due to the rotation of the photon, its time of return varies. The numerical results indicate times of return relatively similar to those achieved by experimental results.




A Challenge To Quantized Absorption by Experiment and Theory

(2012)

Eric S Reiter
251 Nelson Avenue, Pacifica , CA 94044, United States; eric@unquantum.net, 6507389255, www.unquantum.net


(10 pages)
Keywords: photon refutation, gamma-ray, alpha-ray, wave-particle dualtiy

Lookup: light (157), collisions (4), rigid bodies (2), reflection (5), quantum (151), decay (11), rigid (2), bodies (4), particle (38), photon (44), wave (35), gamma (5), alpha (4), ray (2)

Abstract:

After recognizing dubious assumptions regarding light detectors, a famous beam-split coincidence test of the photon model was performed with gamma-rays instead of visible light. A similar test was performed to split alpha-rays. Both tests are described in detail to justify conclusions. In both tests, coincidence rates greatly exceeded chance, leading to an unquantum effect. This is a strong experimental contradiction to quantum theory and photons. These new results are strong evidence of the long abandoned accumulation hypothesis, also known as the loading theory, and draw attention to assumptions applied to key past experiments that led to quantum mechanics. The history of the loading theory is outlined, including the loading theory of Planck'ssecond theory of 1911. A popular incomplete version of the loading theory that convinced physics students to reject it is exposed. The loading theory is developed by deriving a wavelength equation similar to de Broglie's, from the photoelectric effect equation. The loading theory is applied to the photoelectric effect, Compton effect, and charge quantization, now free of wave-particle duality. It is unlikely that the loading theory can apply to recent claimed success of giant molecule multi-path interference/diffraction, and that claim is quantitatively challenged. All told, the evidence reduces quantized absorption to an illusion, due to quantized emission combined with newly identified properties of the matter-wave.




A Challenge To Quantized Absorption by Experiment and Theory

(2012)

Eric S Reiter
251 Nelson Avenue, Pacifica , CA 94044, United States; eric@unquantum.net, 6507389255, www.unquantum.net


(10 pages)
Keywords: photon refutation, gamma-ray, alpha-ray, wave-particle dualtiy

Lookup: light (157), collisions (4), rigid bodies (2), reflection (5), quantum (151), decay (11), rigid (2), bodies (4), particle (38), photon (44), wave (35), gamma (5), alpha (4), ray (2), particle (38), photon (44), wave (35), gamma (5), alpha (4), ray (2)

Abstract:

 After recognizing dubious assumptions regarding light detectors, a famous beam-split coincidence test of the photon model was performed with gamma-rays instead of visible light. A similar test was performed to split alpha-rays. Both tests are described in detail to justify conclusions. In both tests, coincidence rates greatly exceeded chance, leading to an unquantum effect. This is a strong experimental contradiction to quantum theory and photons. These new results are strong evidence of the long abandoned accumulation hypothesis, also known as the loading theory, and draw attention to assumptions applied to key past experiments that led to quantum mechanics. The history of the loading theory is outlined, including the loading theory of Planck's second theory of 1911. A popular incomplete version of the loading theory that convinced physics students to reject it is exposed. The loading theory is developed by deriving a wavelength equation similar to de Broglie's, from the photoelectric effect equation. The loading theory is applied to the photoelectric effect, Compton effect, and charge quantization, now free of wave-particle duality. It is unlikely that the loading theory can apply to recent claimed success of giant molecule multi-path interference/diffraction, and that claim is quantitatively challenged. All told, the evidence reduces quantized absorption to an illusion, due to quantized emission combined with newly identified properties of the matter-wave.




The General Relativistic Perspective

(2013)

David G. Taylor
10528 - 128 Street, Edmonton, AB T5N 1W4, Canada; dgtaylor@telusplanet.net, www.relativistic-perspective.com/



(27 pages)
Keywords: General Relativistic Perspective, Escape Velocity distortion, parallel relativistic distortion, Time, Mass, Radius, Spontaneous Mass Formation, Strong Nuclear Force Distortion, Boson Mass distortion,

Lookup: time (100), mass (94), radius (8), strong (4), force (74), nuclear (46), general (45), velocity (55), formation (5), relativistic (33), distortion (2), parallel (3), boson (3)

Abstract:

This paper formulates additional General Relativistic [G.R.] equations.  They do not contradict General Relativity.  They examine the deductions of Dr. Einstein from a relativistically distorted perspective.  The equations examine the distorted escape velocity of a G.R. object, determining its true – not relativistically distorted – escape velocity.  The values of non-Relativistic velocity and the apparent escape velocity relativistic deformation puts on are it equally true.  In contrast to the variables in the Classical equations of Relativity, they are more specific in their aspect, and in their relationship to escape velocity, not simply the time distortion.  The values for the quantities of rate (the Time and the Velocity) are the quantities for zero escape velocity||zero deformation – the non-Relativistic aspects.

Because there are fewer seconds for a Relativistic Perspective that has distortion, the perspective equations have a different relation.  They calculate higher velocity perceived by the observers in a General relativistically distorted body.  The escape velocity would appear to increase in exactly same proportion as time – but the energy needed for that escape velocity would decrease because of the slowing of all Bosons – including the Graviton.

The development of the equations is done more completely in the paper, but two examples show the principle.  The equations show the relation of two points of view: the independent variables had non-deformation and the depending variable would be the value observed because of the deformation.  The equation reasoned to show to this relationship is: 

       Time’ = Time/(1 – 2GM/rc2)½

Because escape velocity [VelocityEscape = (2GM/r)½], then [VelocityEscape2 = 2GM/r)].  So the above |Time| equation could also be expressed as:

       Time’ = Time/(1 – VelocityEscape2/c2)½ 

– that could be reasoned to mean that Escape velocity is limited to light speed, just as Real||non-Relativistic velocity is limited to “c”.  Less time will go by when there is a relativistic deformation so all Bosons (including the Graviton) would lose their velocity/mass/energy.  The inverse relation would be where the independent variables were the observed velocity from the Relativistic or distorted view.  The dependent variable would be the True||non-relativistic||non-distorted Time||Escape_Velocity.  The parallel equation for that Relativistic Perspective is: 

       Time = Time’/(1 + RelativisticEscape-Velocity2/c2)½ 

This relationship allows the additional development of 2 formula/equations for the Escape velocity.  There are a number of other equations for Mass and Radius that will be proposed in a following paper.  These equations are all of the two Perspectives. 

All the equations are confirmed to two to thousand figures for 35 different values to have a range of 1.0E-500 m/s to c-(1.0E-500) m/s without the significant error.  The tables are available on request.




Future Possible Energy/Paradigm Revolutions from Ultra-cold Matter and Nanoscience Discoveries: Historical Context of Current Research and Overview of Developing Trends

(2013)

Donald Reed




(15 pages)

Abstract:

In the last three decades, the confluence of two streams of research have resulted in some of the most heretofore unknown, energy-transformative and potential paradigm-shifting developments in the history of science and technology. These are due to both the fruits of the nanoscience revolution and those stemming from ultra-colf matter applications as exemplified by the Bose-Einstein condensate. Through examining a wealth of specific research results from each of these areas, some of surprisingly serendipitous nature, this paper will attempt to show that many of the iscoveries that have been made in these arenas point to possible new understanding of the quantum engine that underpins physical reality, and its relationship to electromagnetism and gravitation at both microscopic and large-scale regimes of nature. It is hoped that ultimately this knowledge will subsequently guide us in achieving the coveted goal in our quest to harvest energy from the quantum vacuum.1




Volume Ratios in Patterns vs. Mass Ratios of prominent Hyperons and some other particles

(2013)

Carl R. Littmann
25 Washington Ln, Apt 313, Wyncote, PA 19095, United States; clittmann@verizon.net, 215-517-5464, www.causeeffect.org



(4 pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States

Abstract:

In previous papers, we addressed the proton and less massive major particles by correlating their mass ratios with volume ratios in simplest sphere patterns.  Now we include particles of greater mass than the proton, the Hyperons, and compare those mass ratios to ratios in patterns slightly more advanced than previously.   This approach is most effective for the most prominent particles; but also has some aspects useful for addressing some less-prominent particles.




Gravitation as the result of the reintegration of migrated electrons and positrons to their atomic nuclei.

(2013)

Osvaldo Domann
odomann@yahoo.com



(6 pages)
Keywords: Gravitation, Dark matter, Unified field theory.

Lookup: gravity (124), dark matter (12), unified field theory (7), unified (25), theory (173), field (99), matter (67), dark (21)

Abstract:

 

This paper presents the mechanism of gravitation based on an approach where the energy of an electron or positron is radially distributed in space. The energy is stored in fundamental particles (FPs) that move radially and continuously through a focal point in space, point where classically the whole energy of a subatomic particle is thought to be concentrated. FPs store the energy in longitudinal and transversal rotations defining corresponding angular momenta. Forces between subatomic particles are the product of the interactions of their FPs. The laws of interactions between fundamental particles are postulated in that way, that the linear momenta for all the basic laws of physics can subsequently be derived from them, linear momenta that are generated out of opposed pairs of angular momenta of fundamental particles. 





Cosmology and the Zero Point Energy

(2013)

Barry John Setterfield
barryjsetterfield@gmail.com, www.setterfield.org



(463 pages)

Abstract:

In 1911, Max Planck’s equations indicated the presence of a real energy intrinsic to the vacuum of space. It has become known asthe Zero Point Energy (ZPE) because it is present even if the vacuum is cooled to absolute zero, or about  The ZPE consists of electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths, and was discovered to control the properties of the vacuum, including its electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. It was proven to exist by Mulliken in 1925, but by then the foundations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (or QED physics) were being laid. Quantum physics considersthe ZPE to bea mere mathematical abstraction with no real physical existence. In 1962, Louis de Broglie, one of the physicists who had initially supported the QED approach, re-examined the situation.  He suggested that science may have taken a wrong turn in siding with the QED approach.  Since then, an approach  recognizing areal, physical ZPE combined with classical physics has been developed. This approach is now called Stochastic Electro-Dynamics or SED physics. SED physics shows the ZPE to be the physical reason behind quantum effects on atoms. 

 

This study examines the origin of the ZPE in accord with known physical principles. Dataand theoryboth suggest its strength should increase over the lifetime of the cosmos. The effects of a varying ZPE on atoms and atomic constants, such as Planck’s constant, h, the speed of light, c , and the rest-masses of atomic particles, m is explored. The rate of ticking of atomic clocks, including radiometric clocks and their decay rates, can also be shown to be affected by the Zero Point Energy, whereas orbital clocks (gravity-based) are not.

 

SED physicists have demonstrated that the ZPE maintains the atomic orbits of electrons throughout the cosmos. An increasing ZPE strength means all atomic orbits will become more energetic, resulting in all light emitted from atoms alsobecoming more energetic, orbluer, with time. This gives a clearexplanation forthe increasing red shifts which are seen in progressively more distant galaxies (the farther out we look, the further back in time we are seeing).

 

Changes in the Zero Point Energy through time also meansalteration of the electric and magnetic properties of the vacuum. Thishas implications for plasma physics and astronomy. It is shown that plasma interactions weremore rapid when the ZPE strength waslower. In almost all cosmological models,the universe is considered to have begun as plasma.  Standard astronomy has gravity beginning to act once neutral atoms appeared, and then needing vast amounts of time to form galaxies and stars and planets.  However, even today, our telescopes show that plasma still comprises 99% of the universe.Therefore, using plasma physics, the rates of galaxy, star and planet formation can be shown to have been muchmore rapid in the early cosmos. This may resolve some astronomical anomalies at the frontiers of the universe.

 

An increasing ZPE also has implications for planetary geology, as well as giving a reason for gigantism in Earth’s fossil record. In all fauna, bio-electro-magnetism governs the rate of transmission of nerve impulses, which are effectively electric currents. When the ZPE was low, all electric currents, and hence nerve impulses, flowed more rapidly. This allowed larger faunal types, such as dinosaurs, to be very efficient creatures. As the ZPE increased, this efficiency was lost and only smaller varieties survived.  Because of the Zero Point Energy’s effect upon light itself, photosynthesis was much more efficient, allowing the gigantism we see in plant fossils.

 

Finally, many of relativity’s predictions follow logically from the presence of a real ZPE. The concepts are intuitive and can be formulated with simple mathematics. This approach has the advantage that the restrictive postulates of relativity are not needed to achieve the same results. The real, physical ZPE is thus seen to be the common factor that unites a number of branches of science.

 

 

Keywords: Zero Point Energy (ZPE); SED physics; vacuum properties; atomic constants; speed of light; atomic time; atomic rest masses; red shifts; plasma physics; planetary geology; fossil gigantism; bio-electro-magnetism; relativity (special and general).


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