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Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
"Ed"
gravityfindings@gmail.com

View count: 1742
Dowdye, Dr. Edward Henry Jr.    (Easy Link: http://www.worldsci.org/people/Edward_Dowdye)
Physicist, Laser Optics Engineer, Independent Researcher

Interests: Emission Theory, Classical Physics, Special Relativity, General Relativity, Extinction Shift
Nationality: USA

Related Websites:
Extinction Shift Principle Quantum Realism and Special... Science in the Bible


Experiments:
On Conventional Concepts on Gravitation and its Interaction with Electromagnetism

Books:
1991/ 2001Discourses & Mathematical Illustrations Pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle under the Electrodynamics of Galilean Transformations

Abstracts Online:
2008 Discourses & Mathematical Illustrations pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle under the Electrodynamics of Galilean Transfomations
2007Time Resolved Images from the Center of the Galaxy Appear to Counter General Relativity
2007Extinction Shift Principle: A Purely Classical Alternative to General and Special Relativity
2009Astrophysical Evidence Clearly Shows no Direct Gravitation-Electromagnetism Interaction
2010Significant Finding in Astrophysics Show There is NO Direct Interaction Between Gravity and Electromagnetism in Empty Vacuum Space
2010An Ideal Inelastic Collision Model using Center of Mass Frames Shows Conservation of Kinetic Energy
2011Gravitational Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space Does NOT Take Place
2011The Shapiro Delay: A Frequency Dependent Transit-Time Effect
2012Gravitational Light Bending History is Severely Impact-Parameter Dependent
2013Gravitational Deflection of Microwaves from Extra Galactic Pulsar Sources at High Impact Parameters deviate from General Relativity
2016Microwaves from Extra Galactic Radio Sources found to Deflect only at Minimum Impact Parameter Corresponding to the Solar Plasma Limb

Media Online:
2011-02-12VideoGravitational Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space Does NOT Take Place
2009-07-04VideoAstrophysical Evidence Clearly Shows No Gravitation-Electromagnetism Interaction

Event Attendence:
2016-07-202nd Annual Chappell Natural Philosophy Society ConferenceConference will attend
2014-10-25Extinction Shift PrincipleVideo Conference
2014-05-03Introduction to the Tron Theory Video Conference
2014-03-29Identifying Scientific Assumptions, Part 2Video Conference
2014-03-08NPA Town Hall MeetingVideo Conference
2014-02-08The Hilbert Book Model ProjectVideo Conference
2014-02-01Mach?s Principle and the Anomalous Acceleration on Pioneer 10 and 11Video Conference
2014-01-25Applying the Riemann Statistical Oscillation to Vacuum FluctuationVideo Conference
2014-01-18Gravity GroupVideo Conference
2014-01-11Significant Findings - Gravitational LensingVideo Conference
2013-07-1120th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference
2013-06-01AberrationVideo Conference
2013-05-18Machs Principle and the Concept of MassVideo Conference
2013-04-13Super Principia Unified Gravitational Vortex TheoryVideo Conference
2013-04-06Integrating Vector Particle Physics with the Dodecahedron Quark Ball and the Octahedral Hexagonal FractalVideo Conference
2013-03-23Gravitational Deflection of EM Waves Deviates from General RelativityVideo Conference
2013-03-02Gravitomagnetism a Fatal Problem for the General Relativity TheoryVideo Conference
2013-02-23The Riemann Hypothesis and the Physics of LightVideo Conference
2013-01-26Electrodynamic Experiments and Theory: A Kinetic SynthesisVideo Conference
2013-01-12NPA Members Meeting - The Future of the NPA: Taking it to the Next LevelVideo Conference
2012-12-22The Fundamental Atomic ModelVideo Conference
2012-12-15The Solution of the Boltzmann ConstantVideo Conference
2012-11-10Unified Field Theory: From Boscovich to GeometrodynamicsVideo Conference
2012-11-03Unified Field TheoryVideo Conference
2012-09-15Gravity GroupVideo Conference
2012-07-2519th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference (Absentia)
2012-07-07Why Relativity is FalseVideo Conference
2012-03-24Unified Gravitational Vortex Theory - Part 1Video Conference
2012-03-03A New Approach to Mountain FormationVideo Conference
2012-02-11Definition of Physical Quantities with Respect to Space and TimeVideo Conference
2012-01-06Electric Universe Conference 2012: The Human StoryConference
2011-12-10Gravitation and the Dark Matter Model of the UniverseVideo Conference
2011-11-19Gravity Group: Bob French PresentsVideo Conference
2011-11-05Category Theory of Topological ThermodynamicsVideo Conference
2011-10-15The Galilean Invariance of Maxwell?s EquationsVideo Conference
2011-10-08The Meaning of Maxwell's Equations, Part 3: Gauss' B LawVideo Conference
2011-10-01The Organizational Structure of PhysicsVideo Conference
2011-09-03The Electric Force of a CurrentVideo Conference
2011-08-13Y-Bias and Angularity: The Dynamics of Self-Organizing CriticalityVideo Conference
2011-07-09Extinction Shift Optical InterferometerDemonstration
2011-07-0618th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference
2011-04-23Experimental Results In Measuring Atmospheric ElectricityVideo Conference
2011-04-16Practicism: The Unifying Body of Understanding for EverythingVideo Conference
2011-04-02The Natural Philosophy of the Electric UniverseVideo Conference
2011-03-26New Foundations in Mathematics: The Geometric Concept of NumberVideo Conference
2011-03-12A Matter of DefinitionVideo Conference
2011-02-26The Engineering Value of the Cosmological ConstantVideo Conference
2011-02-19Advances in Brown's Gas TheoryVideo Conference
2011-02-12Gravitational Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space Does NOT Take PlaceVideo Conference
2011-01-22Unified Theory Composition - Structure of Electron, Proton & NeutronVideo Conference
2010-12-18The Three Elements TheoryVideo Conference
2010-12-11The Devil's Advocate of Einstein: History of RelativityVideo Conference
2010-11-27The Natural Philosophy of the Electric UniverseVideo Conference
2010-11-20Electro-Magnetic Strong Force: String Theory without the StringVideo Conference
2010-10-30Proton, Neutron and Electron Pair Binding Energy PhysicsVideo Conference
2010-10-23The Alpha-Beta Model of the Atomic NucleusVideo Conference
2010-10-16The Origin of Symmetry and Beauty in the UniverseVideo Conference
2010-10-02Gravitomagnetism: Successes in Explaining the CosmosVideo Conference
2010-09-25Questioning Einstein: Is Relativity Necessary?Video Conference
2010-09-11Planetary Scarring in an Electric UniverseVideo Conference
2010-09-04How God Made AtomsVideo Conference
2010-08-28A Testable Electromagnetic and Gravitational InterfaceVideo Conference
2010-08-21The Meaning of Maxwell's Equations, Part 2: Ampere's LawVideo Conference
2010-07-31The Ten Assumptions of Science, Part 3Video Conference
2010-07-24Diamagnetism and ParamagnetismVideo Conference
2010-07-17A Solution for the Dark Matter Mystery Based on Euclidean RelativityVideo Conference
2010-07-10Satellite Orbit Perturbations in a Dusty Martian AtmosphereVideo Conference
2010-06-2317th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference
2010-06-23Gravity GroupGroup
2010-06-12Unified Theory's New Principle of Null ActionVideo Conference
2010-05-15Introduction to the Theory Of DespaceVideo Conference
2010-05-08Polarization EntanglementVideo Conference
2010-05-01The Meaning of Maxwell's Equations, Part 1: Gauss D LawVideo Conference
2010-04-17The Generalization of Mechanics and ElectrodynamicsVideo Conference
2010-04-03The Control of the Natural ForcesVideo Conference
2010-03-20Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics of Space and the Unified Field Theory - Part 2Video Conference
2010-03-13Fundamental Problems in Electrodynamics and Gravidynamics, Part IVideo Conference
2010-02-27The Mole Hill EffectVideo Conference
2010-01-30Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics of Space and the Unified Field Theory - Part 1Video Conference
2010-01-23A Reality-Based Replacement for Quantum MechanicsVideo Conference
2009-12-19Charactering Brown's GasVideo Conference
2009-12-12Reference Frame Independent Dynamics, Or How to Get Off Einsteins Train, Part 2Video Conference
2009-11-28Hydrogen Cloud Separation as Direct Evidence of the Dynamics of the UniverseVideo Conference
2009-11-21Expansion Tectonics GroupVideo Conference
2009-10-17Instances of Relativistic Illogic (With a GPS Assist)Video Conference
2009-08-30The Ten Assumptions of Science: First Steps in the Overthrow of the Big Bang Theory (Part 1)Video Conference
2009-08-22Improved Relativity Theory and Doppler Theory of GravityVideo Conference
2009-08-15From Aristotle to Einstein to Date: The Same Folly Rules the Paradigm of Special RelativityVideo Conference
2009-08-08Debate Einsteins Special Relativity Postulates True or FalseVideo Conference
2009-08-02The Nature of Light: What Are Photons?Conference
2009-08-01From the Photon to AtomsVideo Conference
2009-07-11The Schwarzschild Solution and its Implications for Gravitational WavesVideo Conference
2009-07-04Astrophysical Evidence Clearly Shows No Gravitation-Electromagnetism InteractionVideo Conference
2009-06-27Friendly Advice for DissidentsVideo Conference
2009-06-06The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM)Video Conference
2009-05-30Discovering Universal Reality (DUR)Video Conference
2009-05-2516th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference
2009-05-0239 Questionable Assumptions in Modern Physics, Part 3Video Conference

Biography

Edward Henry Dowdye, Jr. was born in Washington, DC and has B.S. degrees in Mathematics, Electronics Technology with further studies in Physics from Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia. He has the degree of Diplom-Atomphysik (Atomic Physics) from Physikalisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg, Germany, supported by the German Academic Exchange {Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst Bonn-Bad Godesberg}. He did his research in experimental atomic physics, specifically in the area of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance where he used techniques of optical pumping {Kernresonanzmessung durch optisches Pumpen} on free atoms and ions in vapor form confined in an optical resonance vessel. He did further studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics at Heidelberg. The member is multilingual with fluency in German and Spanish and with a knowledge of conversational French. He has also instructed Experimental Physics and has mentored German graduate students while pursuing his degree at Universit?t Heidelberg.

The member has worked extensively in the area of communication systems engineering, dealing with the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, high data rate satellite uplink and cross link relay communication systems. He worked in Government and Aerospace for a number of years and later returned to academia. While working as an instructor of Physics, he was awarded a grant from the Preparing Future Faculty Program at Howard University, in Washington, DC, where he obtained the Ph.D. in Laser Spectroscopy Physics at the Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, supported by the Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

The member's broad experience in the academic environment includes the instruction of Physics, Engineering and Computer Sciences at Lincoln University and Cheyney University in Pennsylvania, at Marymount University in Northern Virginia, at Southeastern University and at Howard University in Washington, DC.

The member is a Laser Optics Physicist and Electronics Engineer (retired) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. He is independent researcher in the area of pure classical electromagnetism and gravitation, not related to his occupation at NASA.

Dowdye is an emission theorist, perhaps the only one still active and operating on the planet today. There hasn,t been an emission theorist since the famed Walter Ritz (1878-1909) who pioneered the important fundamentals of electromagnetism. Dowdye's formulated his emission theory, the Extinction Shift Principle, with pure classical ideas born out of the correct principles of optics, using Galilean transformations of velocities in Eucliden Space Geometry. Unlike other emission theories, the Extinction Shift Principle applies to both gravitation as well as electromagnetism and challenges both the General and Special Relativity theories. He published his work in a book, Discourses & Mathematical Illustrations pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle under the Electrodynamics of Galilean Transfomations.

Dowdye's Extinction Shift Principle was recently chosen by an elite status university, the Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie, Germany, under direction of Dr. Edgar Kaucher, professor of applied Mathematics and Physics (retired), as a seminar project assigned to the bright young graduate students in Mathematics and Physics for two consecutive years, 2007 and 2008. The member has authored several other important works and papers published in peer reviewed journals. He frequently lectures at various universities, schools and churches and is a devoted role model and mentor for future scientists. Dr. Dowdye is currently a member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Glenn Dale, Maryland, formally a member of Florida Avenue Baptist Church in Washington, DC, his place of birth.


Experiments by Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.

On Conventional Concepts on Gravitation and its Interaction with Electromagnetism
by Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
 
Website:www.extinctionshift.com/SignificantFindings.htm
Type:Other
Status:Proposed
Purpose:Confirm a Direct Interaction between Gravitation & Electromagnetism does not take place On-Going Astrophysical Experiments taking place in Nature's Laboratory; an Experimental Disproof for General Relativity
Outcome:Significant Findings: http://www.extinctionshift.com/SignificantFindings.htm

Books by Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.



View count: 75201
Discourses & Mathematical Illustrations Pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle under the Electrodynamics of Galilean Transformations

by Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.

KeyWords: primary emission, secondary emission, emission theory, extinction shift

Pages: 110
Publisher: Edward Henry Dowdye, Jr.
Year: 1991/ 2001
ISBN: 0963447157
ISBN: 978-0963447159

Buy it now

Description

The published treatise on the Extinction Shift Principle is the Principal Axioms that describe the correct application of Galilean Transformations of Velocities in Euclidean Space Geometry. The Exinction Shift Principle, {German: L?schverschiebungsprinzip}; an expression coined by this author, leads directly to the solutions to the problems responsible for the success and fame of both Special and General Relativity. The solutions are obtained using solely pure classical fundamental and principal axioms in the frame work of Euclidian Space Geometry without having to resorting to Relativity.
  • For the very first time in Classical Physics, an emission theory leads to exact solutions to important problems in Gravitation and Electromagnetism in consistency with modern observations in Astrophysics.  {Refereed Paper: "Time resolved images from the center of the Galaxy appear to counter General Relativity", Dowdye, Jr., E.H., Astronomische Nachrichten, Volume 328, Issue 2, February 2007, pp. 186-191. Abstract: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AN....328..186D   Full length text:  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/search/allsearch
  • This emission theory has lead to singnificant findings on the understanding of gravitational lensing; finding in astrophysical observations that are counter to General Relativity.

The Exinction Shift Principle provides a pure classical explanation for the so-called gravitational redshift, gravitational light bending, time dilation, Mercury perihelion drift, PSR1913+16 perihelion drift, the invariance of the wave equations as well as a pure classical and intuitive explanation for the optical gyroscope and the Sagnac Effect. (The "Sagnac Effect-link" are the details refering to prevailing misconceptions and serious omissions in the modern physical science texts key fundamentals which have been practically forgotten by modern researchers.)

It is seen that the effect known as Sagnac is a direct consequence of the rectilinear nature which all electromagnetic radiation, packets of waves or photons move from interfering optical element to interfering optical element, each belonging to and rigidly attached to a rotating platform; an important principle of optics that is virtually forgotten by all too many researchers in this discipline.

The Extinction Shift Principle, the emission theory of Dowdye, is the tip-off and has lead to significant findings pertaining to misapplications of important Mathematical Physics fundamentals pertaining to the subject matter of Gravitational Lensing. (The "Gravitational Lensing-link" link refers to details, important papers, refereed publications and press releases on these significant findings.)

AUTHOR'S NOTE: The purchasers of my BOOK will receive COMPLIMENTARY COPIES of all my PUBLISHED REFEREED PAPERS on GRAVITATIONAL LENSING.

The papers pertaining to gravitational lensing, published in REFEREED JOURNALS, are treatises on the FLAWS and the Significant Findings on the light bending rule of General Relativity. The published FINDINGS in the refereed papers do not mention anything at all about the Extinction Shift Principle, i.e., the emission theory of Dowdye. It is important to note that the Book on the Principal Axioms of the Extinction Shift Principle served as the very tip-off that lead to the Significant Findings on the light bending rule of General Relativity; findings that were accepted the referees of the renown journal.

The Extinction Shift Principle is applied to both Gravitation and Electromagnetism

  • For the very first time, a pure classical theory successfully demonstrates solutions in Euclidean Space Geometry under Galilean transformations to both electromagnetism and gravitation.
  • Astrophysical Phenomena are found to be consistent and in complete agreement with the predictions of the Extinction Shift Principle and are found to counter the predictions of General Relativity.

Extinction Shift Principle Illustrated; Some Classical Alternatives equivalent to Special and General Relativistic Principles

  • Invariance of the Wave Equation
  • Optical Gyroscopes
  • Sagnac Effect
  • Convection
  • Effective Mass {as opposed to Relativistic Mass}
  • Transverse Relative Time {as opposed to Time Dilation}
  • Mercuary Perihelion Drift
  • PSR1913+16 Perihelion Drift

Conclusion

Effectivity versus Relativity

Glossary of Terms

Notes and Reference

Appendix of Additional Manuscripts

  • Aberrational Effect
  • Sagnac Effect {Proof of Galilean Transformation, Rectilinear Motion of Photon}
  • Gravitational Redshift & Solar Light Bending
  • Nullified Experiments in Optic & Principal Axioms of the Extinction Shift Principle Applied

Papers by Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.



Discourses & Mathematical Illustrations pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle under the Electrodynamics of Galilean Transfomations

(2008)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com


Keywords: emission, re-emission, extintion shift, alternative relativity

Lookup: emission (5), relativity (390), shift (15), alternative (4)

Abstract:

You can search continually the known cosmic sky with the most modern instruments without ever finding direct evidence for gravitational lensing in the optical region of the spectrum as suggested by the light bending rule of General Relativity. With modern instruments, the evidence should be clearly revealed. The cosmic sky should be filled with visible lensing effects on the light emitted from background sources, everywhere coinciding with the presence of point-like super massive bodies in the foreground. We shall now look at both the observational evidence and the conventional wisdom.



Time Resolved Images from the Center of the Galaxy Appear to Counter General Relativity

(2007)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com


Volume 328, No. 2, pp. 186-191
Keywords: General Relativity, Galaxy

Lookup: general relativity (34), galaxies (16), relativity (390), general (45)

Abstract:

Astronomische Nachrichten,  V328, N2, (2007), pp. 186-191.

For decades now some very important fundament principles of mathematical Physics have been incorrectly applied to the theory of gravitational lensing or just simply ignored. From astrophysical observations it is apparent that the current understanding of the effects that gravitation should have on light is fundamentally incorrect. Astrophysical observations pertaining to lensing are consistent with effects due to an indirect interaction involving an interfering media, not a direct interaction taking place in vacuum space. It is however theoretically possible that current technical means may not permit a distinction to be made between an indirect and a direct interaction between gravitation and light. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun represents an indirect interaction between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of light from the stars. There is convincing observational evidence that a direct interaction between light and gravitation is yet to be observed.  Historically, the observed evidence of light bending occured predominantly near the plasma rim of the sun, not in the vacuum space far above the rim. The events taking place at the site of Sagittarius A* presents convincing observational evidence that a direct interaction between rays of light and gravitation in vacuum space simply does not take place. This is clearly revealed in the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*,  a region at the galactic core believed to be a super massive black hole.  This is a region that has been under intense observations by the Astrophysicists since 1992.  A clear lack of observational evidence for optical lensing due to gravitation is apparent when examining the undistorted images of the stars moving along Keplar paths about Sagittarius A*. The space in the immediate vicinity of a black hole is by definition an extremely good vacuum. The evidence for this is clearly seen in the highly elliptical orbital paths of the rapidly moving stars orbiting about the galactic core mass.  The presence of any material media near the galactic core mass would conceivably perturb the motion of the stellar object s16 moving with fractional light velocities, thus causing it to rapidly disintegrate. Astrophysical observations reveal that s16 has a velocity approaching 3 % of the velocity of light when passing to within a periastron distance corresponding to 60 astronomical units from the black hole thus giving solid evidence that the space in this region has to be, without a doubt, an extremely good vacuum. It follows from this that a direct interaction between the light emitted from the orbiting stars and the gravitation of this super massive galactic core at the site of Sagisttarius A* is yet to be observed.




Extinction Shift Principle: A Purely Classical Alternative to General and Special Relativity

(2007)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com


Physics Essays, Volume 20, No. 1, pp. 56-66
Keywords: Extinction Shift Principle, Classical, General Relativity, Special Relativity

Lookup: special relativity (125), classical (19), general relativity (34), relativity (390), special (175), extinction (2), shift (15), general (45), principle (57)

Abstract:

The extinction shift principle, the most recent emission theory, leads directly to the solutions of both gravitation and electromagnetism. It has been found that the formulas of both general relativity and special relativity are derivable from a direct application of Galilean transformations of velocities in Euclidean space geometry. The transformations are applied to both the gravitation and the electromagnetism of a theoretically ideal vacuum. The mathematical illustrations show that, as a consequence of Galilean transformations, direct measurement or observation of the primary wave is not possible and neither the primary wavelength nor the velocity of the primary wave is measurable, consistent with all observations. The extinguished primary wave is replaced at interference by a secondary wave that is re-emitted by its secondary source with an extinction-shifted wavelength. The lens, window, or mirror of the measuring apparatus becomes the secondary source. For this reason this effect is coined here as the extinction shift principle. It is herewith mathematically illustrated that this theory is applicable to gravitation as well as electromagnetism.



Astrophysical Evidence Clearly Shows no Direct Gravitation-Electromagnetism Interaction

(2009)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com



2009, 16th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Storrs, CT, United States

2009, Astrophysical Evidence Clearly Shows No Gravitation-Electromagnetism Interaction, United States
Keywords: gravitation, electromagnetism, Gaussian surface, gravitational lensing

Lookup: gravity (124), electromagnetism (33), lensing (2), gaussian (5), surface (2)

Abstract:

Strong astrophysical evidence supported by important fundamentals of Mathematical Physics suggests that a direct interaction between gravitation and electromagnetism does not take place in the empty vacuum space far beyond the solar plasma rim. A fundamental principle of Mathematical Physics, namely, that of the analytical Gaussian spherical surface law, applicable directly to gravitation as well as to electromagnetism, reveals serious flaws in the conventional understanding of gravitational lensing of the sun. The gravitational light bending effect predicted by General Relativity observed at the solar rim should theoretically be an easily detectable effect at distances of multiple solar radii beyond the solar rim. At analytical Gaussian spherical surfaces of radii 2R, 3R, 4R and 5R, respectively, each assumed to be concentric to the center of the sun, the light bending effects of at least one half, one third, one forth and one fifth of the observed light bending effect noted at the solar rim at radius R should be easily detectable effects within currently technical means. Applying Gauss's surface law directly to the enclosed gravitating solar mass, the gravitational effect on a given ray of light depends solely on the mass M enclosed. The evidence clearly shows that a gravitational bending effect on the rays of starlight is yet to be observed by modern Astronomy at distances beyond the solar plasma rim. Furthermore, the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*, a region at the galactic core believed to be a super massive black hole, have not revealed any evidence of gravitational light bending. This is a region under intense observations by the Astrophysicists since 1992. A clear lack of observational evidence for optical lensing due to gravitation is apparent when examining the undistorted images of the stars moving along pure Keplar paths about Sagittarius A*. Astrophysical observations reveal that the stellar object s16 has a velocity approaching 3 % of the velocity of light when passing to within a periastron distance corresponding to 60 astronomical units from the black hole thus giving solid evidence that the space in this region has to be, without a doubt, an extremely good vacuum. The space in the immediate vicinity of a black hole is by definition an extremely good vacuum. The presence of any material media near the galactic core mass would conceivably perturb the motion of the stellar object s16 moving with fractional light velocities and would cause it to rapidly disintegrate. To date no sign of gravitational lensing has been observed in this region. {Refereed Paper: Astronomische Nachrichten,  V328, N2, (2007), pp. 186 -191.}

Powerpoint presentation




Significant Finding in Astrophysics Show There is NO Direct Interaction Between Gravity and Electromagnetism in Empty Vacuum Space

(2010)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com


Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 7, pp. 131-136

2010, 17th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Long Beach, CA, United States
Keywords: Gravitational lensing, Gauss' Law, Solar Plasma Rim, General Relativity

Lookup: general relativity (34), relativity (390), gravity (124), law (61), general (45), plasma (17), solar (24), lensing (2)

Abstract:

Findings show that important fundamental principles of mathematical Physics are consistently misapplied to concepts of gravitational lensing or just simply ignored. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun represents a clear example of an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of light from the stars. There is convincing observational evidence that a direct interaction between light and gravitation in empty vacuum space simply does not occur. Historically, all evidence of light bending has been observed predominantly near the thin plasma rim of the sun; not in the empty vacuum space far above the thin plasma rim. An application of Gauss' law clearly shows that, if the light bending rule of General Relativity were valid, then a light bending effect due to the gravitational field of the sun should be easily detectable with current technical mean in Astrophysics at analytical Gaussian spherical surfaces of solar radii, namely, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, ..., respectively, where R is one solar radius. An effect of at least one half, one third, one forth, one fifth, etc., respectively, of the observed light bending noted at the solar rim within currently technical means should be easily observable effects. We note that a gravitational bending effect on the rays of starlight is yet to be observed by modern astronomical means at these distances just slightly above the plasma rim of the sun; a clear violation of the light bending rule of General Relativity. Moreover, the events taking place at the center of our galaxy, under intense observations by the astrophysicists since 1992, present convincing evidence that a direct interaction between light and gravitation simply does not take place. This highly studied region, known as Sagittarius A*, is thought to contain a super massive black hole, a most likely candidate for gravitational lensing. The past two decades of intense observations in this region have revealed not a shred of evidence for any gravitational lensing according to the light bending rule of General Relativity. The evidence is clearly revealed in the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*.



An Ideal Inelastic Collision Model using Center of Mass Frames Shows Conservation of Kinetic Energy

(2010)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com
Prof. Shahin Ghazanshahi




Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 7, pp. 137-140

2010, 17th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Long Beach, CA, United States

Abstract:

A frame transfer model introduced here shows that the kinetic energy is totally conserved and accounted for in the ideal inelastic collision as well as in the elastic collision. The kinetic energy transfer between colliding masses in the ideal inelastic collision case is found to be totally consistent with the law of conservation of energy which states that energy can be neither created nor annihilated. In all inelastic collisions, the two colliding masses move jointly at precisely their center-of-mass velocity, a velocity which is unchanging in a closed system of unbound masses. For this reason, a properly formulated energy transfer model is chosen to be one that goes from the initial frame of the moving mass to that of the center-of-mass frame.



Gravitational Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space Does NOT Take Place

(2011)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com



Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 7, pp. 176-182

2011, 18th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States

2011, Gravitational Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space Does NOT Take Place, United States
Keywords: black hole, gravitational lensing, galactic core, Gauss law, optical reciprocity

Lookup: black hole (8), gravity (124), law (61), black (22), hole (9), lensing (2), galactic (8), core (4), optical (4), reciprocity (2)

Abstract:

Findings show that the rays of star light are lensed primarily in the plasma rim of the sun and hardly in the vacuum space just slightly above the rim. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun represents a clear example of an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of light from the stars.  Since the lower boundary of this vacuum space is only a fraction of a solar radius above the solar plasma rim, it is exposed to virtually the same gravitational field. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun appears to represent an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of star light. An application of Gauss' law clearly shows that, if the light bending rule of General Relativity were valid, then a light bending effect due to the gravitational field of the sun should be easily detectable with current technical mean in Astrophysics at analytical Gaussian spherical surfaces of several solar radii. More importantly, the very same light bending equation obtained by General Relativity was derived from classical assumptions of a minimum energy path of a light ray in the plasma rim, exposed to the gravitational gradient field of the sun. An intense search of the star filled skies reveals a clear lack of lensing among the countless numbers of stars, where there are many candidates for gravitational lensing according to the assumptions of General Relativity. Assuming the validity of the light bending rule of General Relativity, the sky should be filled with images of Einstein rings. Moreover, events taking place at the center of our galaxy, a region known as Sagittarius A*, thought to contain a super massive black hole, is considered a most likely candidate for an observation of gravitational lensing. A lack of evidence for gravitational lensing is clearly revealed in the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*.


Abstract:

First noticed by Irvin L. Shapiro in 1964, the transit time required for a microwave signal to propagate through space, arrive at a satellite orbiting Venus or Mercury, required a measurable time delay for the reply signal to propagate back to the earth to be received at the antenna of the observatory. The time delay was noticeably affected by the relative position of the sun. Controlled measurements conducted by Shapiro determined that the time-tagged microwave signals had measurable effects that varied as a function of the impact parameter of the microwave beam relative to the sun. The delays were observed to be in the 100's of microseconds when the impact parameter of the microwave beam was at a minimum. After repeated measurements, varying time delays were recorded and were referred to as the Shapiro delay. These measurements permitted a precise determination of the electron density profile of the solar wind as a function of the radial distance r from the sun. The electron density profile of solar wind is found to behave very nearly as an inverse square of r, namely as r-2, with electron density profile models ranging from r-2.05 to r-2.08, and with effects that engulf the outmost planets of the solar system. The bulk of all the Shapiro delay measurements were done using microwave frequencies from 500 MHz to 8.8MHz (with wavelengths from 80cm to 3.5cm). Significant findings of this research reveal that, for all microwave signals propagating in the solar wind atmosphere of the solar system, the waves are subjected to a frequency dependent plasma index of refraction n that exceeds unity, i.e., n > 1.0000000000. For optical, IR and UV wavelengths, the plasma index of refraction is practically n = 1.0000000000 and these wavelengths are virtually unaffected by the widespread atmosphere of the expanding solar wind described by the electron density profile. As a consequence, the Shapiro delay is a very good measurement of a frequency dependent transit-time effect and can not be a space-time effect of General Relativity that is independent of frequency.


Abstract:

Recorded history of astronomical observations clearly shows that the rays of star light are gravitationally lensed solely the plasma rim of the sun, not in the plasma-free space for impact parameters of light rays above the plasma rim. Although the plasma atmosphere of the sun has a thickness of only a fraction of a solar radius, the gravitational light bending effect as predicted by the light bending rule of General Relativity should be easily detectable above plasma rim in the plasma-free space for several solar radii with current technical means. Findings show the solar plasma atmosphere represents an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of the stars light. Calculations supporting this argument lead to the very same light bending equation obtained by General Relativity, derived from classical assumptions of a minimum energy path of a light ray in a plasma atmosphere exposed to the gravitational gradient field of the sun. This result is confirmed by cited researchers who used a very-long-baseline-interferometer (VLBI) measurement on extra galactic radio sources to determine the gravitational deflection of microwaves at the solar plasma rim, obtaining a result to within 0.9998 +/- 0.0008 times that of General Relativity. Moreover, there is a clear lack of lensing among the countless numbers of stars, where likely candidates for gravitational lenses and point-like light sources are by good chance co-linearly aligned with the earth based observer. With this condition well at hand and by assuming the validity of the light bending rule of General Relativity, the sky should be filled with images of Einstein rings. Findings convincingly show the failed observation of Einstein rings in the star-filled skies are fundamentally due to the larger impact parameters requiring the light to pass above the stellar atmosphere of the lensing stars due to the astronomical distances.




Gravitational Deflection of Microwaves from Extra Galactic Pulsar Sources at High Impact Parameters deviate from General Relativity

(2013)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com
(5 pages pages)

2013, 20th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States
Keywords: black hole, gravitational lensing, Gauss law

Lookup: black hole (8), gravity (124), law (61), black (22), hole (9), lensing (2)

Abstract:

Decades of observations of the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic waves at the solar limb show a very strong impact parameter dependency. Apparently, the gravitational deflection effect is an explainable phenomenon, which vary in relation to the solar limb due to an indirect interaction between the gravitational gradient of the sun and the deflected electromagnetic radiation itself. The famous equation of general relativity for the gravitational deflection of light was derived by an application of the conservation of energy.. It was assumed that the propagating wave in the solar plasma limb travel along a minimum-time or a minimum-energy path. Surprisingly, this result was found to be completely frequency independent. To date no clear distinctions can be made between a direct and an indirect interaction gravitation-electromagnetism interaction. The plasma limb of the sun is a representation of an indirect interaction between the gravitational field of the sun and the deflected electromagnetic waves. The minimum time calculation has been confirmed by a number of very-long-baseline interferometer (VLBI) measurements of the microwaves emitted by the extra galactic radio pulsar sources. Lebach et al. (1995). The impact parameter dependency of microwave signals at the solar limb has been experimentally verified showing that the microwave signals deflect precisely at the impact parameter R exactly at the plasma limb of the sun, where R is the solar radius and at an angle of exactly 1.75 arcsec. A gravitational deflection of microwave signals from extragalactic sources at higher impact parameters are yet to be observed or resolved.




Microwaves from Extra Galactic Radio Sources found to Deflect only at Minimum Impact Parameter Corresponding to the Solar Plasma Limb

(2016)

Dr. Edward Henry Dowdye Jr.
gravityfindings@gmail.com, www.extinctionshift.com
Keywords: Solar Plasma Limb, Gravitational Deflection of Microwaves

Lookup: black hole (8), gravity (124), law (61), black (22), hole (9), lensing (2), gravity (124), plasma (17), solar (24), deflection (2)

Abstract:

Findings show that the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic waves in the microwave frequency spectrum are severely impact parameter dependent at the plasma limb of the sun. By definition the impact parameter epsilon is the nearest point of approach of a given ray of light or a ray of microwaves to the center of the gravitating mass M that is enclosed in an analytical Gaussian sphere of radius R. The light bending rule of General Relativity predicts that impact parameters of epsilon$ approximately R for gravitationally bent rays of light and microwaves should occur in empty vacuum space as well as in the plasma limb of the sun, where R is the radius of the analytical Gaussian sphere that encloses the gravitating mass M of the sun. The past century of astrophysical observations show that the bulk of gravitational light bending effects has been observed primarily at the plasma limb of the sun, namely, at impact parameters of epsilon approximately R. With current technical means in Astrophysics, the gravitational light bending effect should be an easily observable effect for impact parameters corresponding to several solar radii above the plasma limb of the sun, namely, at epsilon = 2R, epsilon = 3R, epsilon = 4R, etc., etc., at epsilon = nR, for analytical Gaussian spheres of several solar radii R. The corresponding effects of gravitational deflection should be 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, ..., 1/n times 1.752 arcsec observed at the solar plasma limb. Of course, this assumes the light bending rule of General Relativity applies to all empty vacuum space above the surface of the sun as well as in the plasma limb. Findings show that the plasma atmosphere of the sun represents an indirect interaction between the gravitational gradient field of the sun and the microwaves from the extra galactic radio pulsar sources. A minimum energy path calculation, supporting this argument, leads to a derivation of the very same light bending equation obtained from the assumptions of General Relativity. This result was confirmed by a measurement on the gravitational deflection of microwaves at the Solar plasma limb by Lebach. (1995), who used a very-long-baseline-interferometer (VLBI) technique. The researchers used extra galactic radio pulsar sources to determine the gravitational deflection of the microwaves from these sources at the solar plasma limb, obtaining a results to within 0.9998 +/- 0.0008 times 1.752 arcsec. PACS: 95.30Sf, 04.25.dg, 52/25/Qt. 52.40.Db


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