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Prof. William L. Hughes
"Bill"

Rapid City, SD 57702
United States

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Hughes, Prof. William L.     (Easy Link: http://www.worldsci.org/people/William_Hughes)
Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, Inventor (Deceased)

Nationality: USA
Born: Thursday, December 2, 1926
Died: Wednesday, February 21, 2007 (Age 80)

Memorial Wall: read / add a dedication

Books:
2006The Electromagnetic Nature of Things

Abstracts Online:
2004A Challenge to Coulomb's Law: Implications for Gravity and Matter Structure
2006Trouton-Noble Revisited
2006Michelson-Morley, Trouton-Noble, Kennedy-Thorndike, and the Fitzgerald-Lorentz Contraction
2006Michelson-Morley Revisited, or Can the Michelson-Morley Be Real?
1995A Simple Mathematical Model Which Suggests an Electromagnetic Basis for Inertial Mass
1994A Second Look at a Fundamental Concept in Electromagnetics
2004On Kopernicky?s Conjecture: Gravity is a Difference Between Electrostatic Attraction and Repulsion

Event Attendence:
2006-04-0313th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference
2004-04-0711th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference

Biography

William Lewis Hughes

Education: BS Elect. Eng., South Dakota. School of Mines & Technology, 1949; MS. & Ph.D. Elect. Eng., Iowa State. University, 1950, 1952.

Experience 1944-1993: U.S. Navy, WW II, Broadcast Engineer, Prof. of EE, Iowa State University, Oklahoma State University (Dept. Head), South Dakota School of Mines & Technology (VP of Academic Affairs, SDSM&T), President of InEn Corp., Stillwater, Oklahoma, Author of two engineering texts, contributor to five McGraw Hill Standard Engineering Handbooks, Author of 60+ technical papers in color television, energy systems, and electromagnetic theory. Holds 14 patents in color television and energy systems. Still teaches power electronics and guides graduate students. Life Fellow of IEEE. Currently Professor Emeritus of EE at SDSM&T. Lives in Rapid City, SD., Married, has four children and four grandchildren.

Patent: Motor http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080197740

South Dakota Engineering Society (SDES) Member News

Email bhughesrc@aol.com inoperable as of 9/08. Website http://www.electmag.com inoperable as of 2/09.

"The late Professor Bill Hughes, Professor Emeritus of University of South Dakota, happened to be the peer reviewer of my papers published in Galilean Electrodynamics. I regret that we actually never met...

"I am not ready to take Hughes writings without reservations, but I believe (the) results of his works are important steps toward the true explanation of (the) nature of our world. I also believe that experimental results described in his book (The Electromagnetic Nature of Things) have to be on hand especially in respected institutions and to scientists striving for the truth of our nature.

"Considering Einstein's mentality and openmindedness, if Einstein and Hughes were alive today, they would be very good friends."

-- Jaroslav J. Kopernicky


Books by Prof. William L. Hughes



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The Electromagnetic Nature of Things

by Prof. William L. Hughes

Pages: 90
Publisher: Dakota Alpha Press (Rapid City, ND 57702)
Year: 2006
ISBN: 0987391087
ISBN: 978-0967391069


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Description

The theme of this little book is that there is much more information to be gleaned from the electromagnetic field equations of Faraday and Maxwell than normally appears in standard textbooks on electromagnetic theory. When one applies these equations not only to distributed electric currents but also to individual moving charged particles, including the forms involving the vector magnetic potential and retarded potentials so useful in antenna theory, then reasonable arguments can be made that the Newtonian inertial characteristics of mass are quite likely electromagnetic in nature. By analyzing spinning rings of charge one can make the case that the upper limit of speed is indeed the speed of light. That fact can be derived without the help of Lorentz transformations or invoking the Special Theory of Relativity.

The possibility that static electric fields can be created by spinning charges is demonstrated mathematically. In that case it is shown that even though the spinning charge undergoes continuous centripetal acceleration, no energy is radiated. All the fields generated, both electric and magnetic, are static fields. Such electrostatic fields are far fields and do not exhibit the explosive Coulomb forces one would normally expect from the old spherical charge idea.

Another most important result is that gravity is quite possibly electromagnetic in nature. It arises out of a suggestion of Jaroslov Kopernicky of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He did much experimentation with magnets which led him to suggest that the attractive and repulsive forces in Coulombs law are very slightly unequal. A logical mathematical case can be made for his hypothesis without doing violence to any other long held beliefs about electromagnetic theory. A second result of Kopernicky 's suggestion, after extensive analysis, is that a meaningful understanding of the stable formation of crystalline and amorphous structures is possible, and the nature of resonant vibrations in crystalline solids becomes quite easy to understand.

Finally, one can make an interesting electromagnetic argument that the null result of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment was not a deep mystery after all, but was a perfectly reasonable outcome, without invoking the special theory of relativity (SRT) or Lorentz transformations. That in tum suggests a re-examination of some of the common conclusions based on SRT as well as the Kennedy-Thorndike and Trouton-Noble experiments.

"After performing further experimentation to measure forces between solenoid coils and precise measurement of the flux intensity between magnets, having results rather supporting the previous experimentation, I feel it is prudent to reprint the book written by Bill Hughes, The Electromagnetic Nature of Things. In this book, among other of his ideas he also analyzed some of my experiments and papers...

"The latest experimentation equipment we used is obviously far more advanced than Coulomb's pith balls on the strings 200 plus years ago. Coulomb hardly can be blamed for not finding the asymmetry between attraction and repulsion. Also prejudices of his times were not pressing in our experimenting.

"I am not ready to take Hughes writings without reservations but I believe results of his works are important steps toward the true explanation of nature of our world. I also believe that experimental results described in his book have to be on hand especially in respected institutions and to scientists striving for the truth of nature.

"Considering Einstein's mentality and open-mindedness, if Einstein and Hughes were alive today they would be very good friends."

-- Jaroslav J. Kopernicky


Papers by Prof. William L. Hughes



A Challenge to Coulomb's Law: Implications for Gravity and Matter Structure

(2004)

Jaroslav J. Kopernicky
209 Archdekin Drive, Brampton, ON L6V 1Y8, Canada; jarok_1@bell.net, 901-867-5119, www.electmag.com
Prof. William L. Hughes
Rapid City, SD 57702, United States, www.electmag.com
Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 16, No. 5, pp. 63-90

2004, 11th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Denver, CO, United States
Keywords: Coulomb's Law, Gravity, Matter, Structure

Lookup: gravity (124), matter (67), structure (31), law (61), coulomb (6)

Abstract:

"Yet we cannot rest satisfied until the deeper unity between the gravitation and electrical properties of the world is apparent" - Sir Arthur Eddington.

"Universal gravitation is merely a residual phenomenon of electrical attraction and repulsion" - Michael Faraday.

Any idea that attractive and repulsive forces are of even slightly different magnitude flies in the face of Coulomb's law. But experiments with magnets have tended to support such an idea. This paper reports on an ongoing research program in which a past GED author has been joined by his then-reviewers to carry on with the idea and really explore its ramifications.

* Portions also printed in Proceedings of the NPA, V1, N1, pp. 49-56 (2004).




Trouton-Noble Revisited

(2006)

Prof. William L. Hughes
Rapid City, SD 57702, United States, www.electmag.com
Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 3, No. 1, pp. 88-91

2006, 13th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Tulsa, OK, United States
Keywords: Trouton-Noble

Abstract:

In the well known experiment proposed by Fitzgerald and performed by Trouton and Noble, it was assumed that the magnetic field generated between charged capacitor plates moving in a parallel direction would add to the total energy of the system. If the plates were hung on a torsionless suspension, the minimum energy principle was then supposed to cause the plates to turn such the plates were more perpendicular to the direction of motion. In this analysis using retarded potentials, it is shown that the total energy actually decreases slightly. Thus if any movement occurred at all, it would be to make the plates turn towards, now away, from the direction of motion, thus bringing Fitzgerald?s basic concept into question.



Michelson-Morley, Trouton-Noble, Kennedy-Thorndike, and the Fitzgerald-Lorentz Contraction

(2006)

Prof. William L. Hughes
Rapid City, SD 57702, United States, www.electmag.com
Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 3, No. 1, pp. 92-93

2006, 13th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Tulsa, OK, United States
Keywords: Fitzgerald-Lorentz Contraction, Special Theory of Relativity

Lookup: special theory of relativity (17), theory (173), relativity (390), special (175), lorentz (73), contraction (12)

Abstract:

In the late 19th century, G.F. Fitzgerald and H.A. Lorentz independently suggested that the null result of the MM experiment would occur if the transverse arm contracted when it was rotated to become the longitudinal arm. Simultaneously, of course, the longitudinal arm would have to expand as it rotated to become the transverse arm, although this detail is seldom if ever mentioned. The two arms would then interchange, roles leaving the final fringe pattern unchanged. In a paper presented by this author in absentia at the 2005 NPA meeting, a case was made that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz Contraction (FLC) was derivable (for simple shapes at least) from conventional electromagnetic retarded potential theory in a Maxwell-Newton world, without the need to invoke the Special Theory Of Relativity (SRT). While that certainly didn?t invalidate SRT, it did indicate that SRT was perhaps not needed to explain MM. That analysis strongly suggests that the time differences of clocks going around the world in different directions is possibly explainable in a strictly classical Maxwell-Newton world, again without the need to invoke relativistic considerations. It is also suggested in a companion paper in this meeting that the Trouton-Noble results may not be a particularly solid basis for justifying SRT either, a result also shown in a highly sensitive experiment some years ago by Hayden. Finally, it is suggested that a more definitive experiment to validate or invalidate FLC might be a modification and refinement of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment taking advantage of the velocity of the solar system through the cosmos.



Michelson-Morley Revisited, or Can the Michelson-Morley Be Real?

(2006)

Prof. William L. Hughes
Rapid City, SD 57702, United States, www.electmag.com
Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 3, No. 1, pp. 83-87

2006, 13th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Tulsa, OK, United States
Keywords: Michelson-Morley, Michelson-Morley

Lookup: special theory of relativity (17), theory (173), relativity (390), special (175), lorentz (73), contraction (12), michelson (4)

Abstract:

This paper is an update of the Storrs 2005 paper of same title.  It provides an electromagnetic analysis indicating that the much-touted null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is perfectly reasonable from Maxwell-Newton classical considerations, without the need to invoke the special theory of relativity.  The anaysis also provides an alternative classical explanation for clocks going around the world in different directions running at different times, again without the need to consider relativistic theory.  It suggests that reexamination of other classical experiments, such as Trouten-Noble and Kennedy-Thorndike, may be in order.



A Simple Mathematical Model Which Suggests an Electromagnetic Basis for Inertial Mass

(1995)

Prof. William L. Hughes
Rapid City, SD 57702, United States, www.electmag.com
Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 6, No. 2, pp. 31-33
Keywords: electric field, mass, speed of light

Lookup: speed of light (35), mass (94), electric field (6), field (99), electric (45), light (157), speed (58)

Abstract:

It is shown that a linearly accelerated charge generates an electric field which opposes its own acceleration in the same direction as the Newtonian force created by an accelerated mass.  A case can be made that an overall electrically neutral mass would still experience a similar force opposing acceleration.  Finally, if the charge is spinning at the speed of light, one can account for relativistic changes of inertial mass.



A Second Look at a Fundamental Concept in Electromagnetics

(1994)

Prof. William L. Hughes
Rapid City, SD 57702, United States, www.electmag.com
Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 5, No. 4, pp. 86-91
Keywords: electric current, spinning charges, coulomb charge

Lookup: speed of light (35), mass (94), electric field (6), field (99), electric (45), light (157), speed (58), electric (45), current (14), charge (49), spinning (5), charges (4), coulomb (6)

Abstract:

It is worthwhile to examine more closely the concept that an electric current is defined by the product of charge times its velocity, or simply by the quantity of coulomb charge that passes a given point per unit time. It is suggested that this definition is sometimes inadequate to define the fields due to such a current, even if it is a d-c current, when the charge velocity is even a significant fraction of the speed of light. The fact will be demonstrated by analyzing the fields of a spinning charged ring on a time retarded basis. In the process, some interesting characteristics of spinning charges will be present.



On Kopernicky?s Conjecture: Gravity is a Difference Between Electrostatic Attraction and Repulsion

(2004)

Prof. William L. Hughes
Rapid City, SD 57702, United States, www.electmag.com
Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 15, No. 5, pp. 97-99

Abstract:

Some time ago, the editor asked this author to review the manuscript submitted by Jaroslav Kopernicky suggesting that the attractive force between unlike electrical charges may be slightly greater than the repulsive force between like charges. Since all electrically neutral bodies are composed of combinations of positive and negative charges, Kopernicky suggested that this slight difference might account for gravitational forces. This paper seeks to analyze Kopernicky's concept.

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