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Bernard R. Bligh
Tel: +44 (081) 979-0874

4 St. James's Avenue
Hampton Hill
Middlesex TW12 1HH
United Kingdom

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Bligh, Bernard R.     (Easy Link:
Thermodynamics Researcher, Inventor, Lecturer

Interests: Thermodynamics, Big Bang, Cosmology
Nationality: English
Age: 86
Born: Saturday, September 26, 1931

Related Websites:
Thermodynamics Applied to C...

2000The Big Bang Exploded ! Cosmology Corrected, A Commentary With Thermodynamics

Abstracts Online:
1999Application of Thermodynamics of Cosmology
2011Has Cosmology taken a Wrong Turn in its Historical Development?

Event Attendence:
2011-07-0618th Natural Philosophy Alliance ConferenceConference (Absentia)
2008-09-072nd Crisis in Cosmology Conference (CCC-2)Conference
1999-09-17Redshifts and Gravitation in a Relativistic UniverseConference


Bernard Ramsay Bligh has had a career partly in University teaching but mostly in industry. His depth in understanding Thermodynamics has come about by research and by his application of Thermodynamics to many industrial processes. He is a past winner of the British Cryogenics Council Prize jointly with R.J. Allam. At Oxford University, his first degree was in Chemistry and his second degree was in Low Temperature Physics. Bligh's research project was the design and construction of a helium liquefier. This operated for 22 years at the Clarendon Laboratory and it now has an honourable retirement in the British Science Museum (Wroughton). After Oxford, Bligh went to CERN, Geneva, where he installed a hydrogen liquefier. He did a part-time course in Astrophysics at Queen Mary College. London. He is the named inventor in numerous patents relating to refrigeration, gas separation, distillation and energy-efficient processes.


  • First degree, Oxford University, Chemistry.
  • Second degree, research in Low Temperature Physics, thesis ?Design and Construction of a Helium Liquefier?
  • Worked at CERN, Geneva, British Oxygen Company, ICI, Air Products Ltd.
  • Lecturer in Chemistry at Anglia College, Cambridge, and Kingston University, UK.
  • Filed 12 patents relating to the improved efficiency of processes such as distillation.
  • Research into the application of Thermodynamics to Astrophysics and Cosmology.
  • Continuing research into the electrical properties of the Sun and other subjects.

Books by Bernard R. Bligh

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The Big Bang Exploded ! Cosmology Corrected, A Commentary With Thermodynamics

by Bernard R. Bligh

KeyWords: big bang

Pages: 112
Publisher: Bernard Ramsay Bligh
Year: 2000
ISBN: 0953877604
ISBN: 978-0953877607

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The Big Bang Exploded is essential reading for all cosmologists and their students because existing textbooks on Cosmology and Astrophysics contain numerous errors in Thermodynamics and this book aims to correct these mistakes. It will also be of considerable value to students and lecturers in all science and technology, conveying "a feel for Thermodynamics".

The Hot Big Bang Theory postulates that the early Universe was at a very high temperature, and that the expansion of the Universe automatically brought about cooling from high to low temperatures. But the belief by cosmologists that expanding gases always cool down is not true; the free expansion of an ideal gas is a constant temperature process.

The nub of this subject is that thermodynamic calculations on the Hot Big Bang Theory, when done correctly, show conclusively that the theory is fallacious (PART 3). But first it is necessary to show both the basis for doing the calculations and the physical data required. Therefore PART 1 provides the groundwork for thermodynamic calculations and PART 2 analyzes the errors in books on Cosmology.

The book includes extensive thermodynamic calculations for hydrogen and a Temperature-Entropy Diagram. - Excerpted from the Introduction

Papers by Bernard R. Bligh

Application of Thermodynamics of Cosmology


Bernard R. Bligh
4 St. James's Avenue, Hampton Hill, Middlesex TW12 1HH, United Kingdom;, +44 (081) 979-0874,

Gravitation, Electgromagnetism and Cosmology: Toward a New Synthesis , pp. 143-164

1999, Redshifts and Gravitation in a Relativistic Universe, Cesena, Italy
Keywords: Thermodynamics, Cosmology

Lookup: cosmology (47), thermodynamics (15)


When cosmologists say that the Universe was at a temperature of 1010 K when it was one second young, they are making a thermodynamic statement. Temperature is a thermodynamic function. Cosmologists frequently apply thermodynamic equations wrongly and they have the erroneous belief that an expanding gas automatically cools down. The Hot Big Bang Theory stands or falls on its thermodynamic credentials. Cosmologists have entered the realm of Thermodynamics.

This paper analyzes some of the thermodynamic arguments leading to the Hot Big Bang Theory and shows that the theory does not exhibit a valid energy balance.

Thermodynamic calculations are presented with the aid of a Temperature-Entropy Diagram for hydrogen and these calculations together with some graphs show conclusively that the Hot Big Bang Theory violates both the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics.

An alternative version of the Hot Big Bang Theory that the cooling of the Universe comes about by expanding against the force of gravity ? is disproved by a theorem using the Thermodynamics of an isentropic expansion.

Proponents of the Hot Big Bang Theory are challenged to answer five questions.

Has Cosmology taken a Wrong Turn in its Historical Development?


Bernard R. Bligh
4 St. James's Avenue, Hampton Hill, Middlesex TW12 1HH, United Kingdom;, +44 (081) 979-0874,

Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 8, pp. 54-55

2011, 18th Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, College Park, MD, United States


A review of the historical development of cosmology suggests that there are two approaches. One starts with the special and general theories of relativity and proceeds along the lines of theoretical physics; the other takes account of the fact that the universe consists of matter and that the chemical, physical and thermodynamic properties of matter need to be considered. The second approach is of paramount importance for two reasons; first because facts based on experiments in chemistry and physics have accumulated over two centuries and have a sound provenance, and second because thermodynamic data provide a means of doing thermodynamic calculations to test the validity of theories on the nature and origin of the universe. The thermodynamic data in question are numerical values of properties of matter such as internal energy, ionization energy and entropy.

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