The Growing Earth, Moon, and Sun
In an expanding universe, all matter that matters consists of elemental atoms. We can “see” elements, but not their atoms. All elements are different from one another as are their atoms. Before ionization, an element would be classified as unchanging dark matter. Everything changes the first time an element ionizes. Here, the element becomes spectra-visible and its intrinsic energy decays as it ages, some of which is stored as potential energy by converting to additional mass within the existing element and the rest to entropy that heats the elemental mass. Accordingly, the mixture of elements that forms a celestial body grows and heats that body in situ, with the growing mass expanding its volume and its orbit.
The definition of matter also matters. By properly defining matter as mass possessing energy, matter remains unchanging while its mass and energy equivalently exchange with age. The “mechanism” for such mass and energy exchanges is the same mechanism found in Einstein’s energy equation E = mc2 on a micro scale.
The Ionization Potentials (IP) of NBS-34 provides the data for finding a rate of energy decay that determines when elements can potentially join other elements and when they are growing and when they are heating. A heating period is the anomaly where a small incremental jump between the IPs of an element suddenly becomes a large jump. Establishing a rate of decay for the earth, the moon, and the sun enables finding the time when accelerating expansion began on each.
The sun is currently growing three times faster than the Earth. When accelerating expansion started on Earth around 200 MYA and on the moon around 250 MYA, the sun was minimally growing from 203 MYA until 112 MYA when accelerating expansion began. In this link, the unforeseen 91 million year stalled growth period indicates punctuated expansion amongst the stars.
Cosmo-logically, an accelerating expanding universe would consist of accelerating expanding bodies like our earth, moon, and sun.