## Photons, warps, clamps and particles

The physical community has a wrong idea about the nature of photons. Photons are not waves. They cannot be waves, because in free space waves tend to spread in all directions and quickly lose their amplitude. A wave send from the nearest galaxy will reach us with a negligible amplitude and a tiny detector like the human eye will never catch it. Electromagnetic fields depend on the nearby existence of electrical charges. Also, the electrical fields diminish their amplitude quickly as 1/r with distance r from the charge. Thus, this field makes not a good carrier for transporting information as photons do.

Consequently, photons must be different things. Instead of waves, they are strings of equidistant warps. The name ** warp** is a name that I invented to have an easy indication for a special type of solution of a homogeneous second order differential equation that describes part of the behavior of the field that carries the photons. A warp is a one-dimensional front that keeps its shape and its amplitude when it travels through the field. The front moves analogous to the bump that travels in a long rope when a sudden jerk moves the rope up and down. The warp does not deform the field. It just shudders it a little. The warps can bridge a huge distance without losing its integrity. Each warp carries a bit of energy and that bit can be interpreted as information. A warp has no frequency, but the photon, which is a string of equidistant warps has a well-defined frequency. The photon may rotate around its axis of movement. This determines the polarization of the photon. Warps and thus the photons move with fixed speed through its carrier field. The photons obey the Planck-Einstein relation. E=h ν . This means that the photon emitter must keep emitting warps at equidistant instants during a fixed period that is independent of the frequency of the photon. A similar rule holds for the absorber of the photon.

The fact that photons do not deform their carrying field does not mean that other objects cannot deform that field. Massive elementary particles do deform this field. We know this carrying field as the gravitation field. Elementary particles are point-like objects that hop around. Each hop landing generates a clamp. I invented the name ** clamp** to have an easy indication for another special type of solution of the homogeneous second order differential equation that describes part of the behavior of the field that carries the photons and embeds the elementary particles. Clamps are spherical fronts. They also move with light speed. However, the clamps quickly lose their amplitude with increasing distance from the hop landing location. The hops form a hopping path and after a while the hop landings have formed a location swarm. After integration over a long enough period the clamps form the Green’s function of the field. That Green’s function represents the deformation of the field, which is due to the clamp. If the Green’s function is convoluted with the location density distribution that describes the swarm of clamps, then the deformation of the field that is due to the swarm results. This is the deformation of the living space of the elementary particle.

Thus, clamps do deform the embedding field, while warps only shudder the field. However, the hops that trigger the clamps must be continuously regenerated to make the deformation persistent. Otherwise, the deformation fades away. A mechanism that applies a stochastic process generates the landing locations of a hopping path and these landings form the swarm of clamps.

Together with a progression stamp, the hop locations are stored in the eigenspace of an operator that is private to the elementary particle. The corresponding eigenvector spans a ray. That ray is a one-dimensional subspace of the separable Hilbert space that is part of the subspace that represents the vane that scans the whole Hilbert space as function of progression. The vane represents the current status quo of reality. The vane is a part of reality that appears to proceed with universe wide steps through universe and all elementary modules step with that vane.

Each infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space owns a unique non-separable Hilbert space. That companion harbors operators that have continuum eigenspaces. The embedding continuum is such an eigenspace. This invites to consider the embedding of the elementary particles as an ongoing embedding of the separable Hilbert space into its non-separable companion.

The stochastic process that generates the hopping locations of the elementary particle owns a characteristic function. This function is the Fourier transform of the location density distribution that describes the location swarm. This means that the swarm owns a displacement generator. Thus, at first approximation * the swarm moves as one unit*. It also means that the location density distribution can be considered as a wave package. Moving packages of waves tend to disperse. However, the swarm is continuously regenerated and this prevents dispersion of the dynamic location density distribution.

This model offers two views. The first view is the storage view. It shows how all dynamic geometric data are stored in eigenspaces of operators that reside in the separable Hilbert space. The embedding process introduces a corresponding storage of the embedding field in the companion non-separable Hilbert space. The second view is the observer’s view. Here we consider all elementary particles and all modules that are constructed from these elementary modules as observers. The observers only get their information from the past and it is brought to them via vibrations and deformations of continuums that embed them. The result is that the observers get a different impression of their environment than the storage view represents. The observers view a spacetime structure that features a Minkowski structure. The storage view uses quaternions that expose a Euclidean structure. Together both views offer a complete picture of what is happening.

The embedding field is not the only field. Elementary particles have properties that are related to these other fields. Only the rest mass of the particle relates to its interaction with the embedding field. The rest mass is proportional to the number of clamps that are contained in the hopping location swarm that represents the particle.

* This subject is also treated in the forum thread *John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society Forums › 1. CNPS Small Forums (Topics) › Quantum Mechanics

Hans,

“They cannot be waves, because in free space waves tend to spread in all directions and quickly lose their amplitude. ”

I have great respect for your work however I believe an adjustment to fundamental field (ether) properties may shed new light on an even more simplified model. Although I don’t do mathematical formulations I have logicly resolve field properties that allow both divergence and convergence of longitudinal waves. In addition the longitudinal waves resolve to have greatly variable propagation speeds relative to transverse light waves.

What you describe as a warp is analogous to a transverse sheer wave propagating in tensionable rigid and frictionless media (field properties). These waves can and do remain focused and travel at constant velocity as long as the stress/strain (permitivity/permeability) of the (media, ether, free space, whatever you wish to call it) is constant. A wave is still a wave regardless of wether it is part of a sequence of cycles or just a single half cylcle.

I have many more details if you are interested.

Cornelis

Cornelis,

Free space does not contain the tools to keep a wave focussed. It is not necessary to focus a wave because the homogeneous second order partial differential equation does not only offer waves as its solutions. It also offers one and three-dimensional shock fronts as part of their solutions. The one-dimensional shock front does exactly what is required. It keeps its integrity (shape and amplitude) during long range travel. These warps differ from the transverse sheer wave that you mention. Firs of all they have no frequency. The emitter must construct that frequency by emitting the warps at equidistant instants. Consequently, to keep the Einstein-Planck relation all photons must feature the same emission duration.

Hans,

Would it not be more accurate to say the proposed mathematical model does not have the tools to keep a wave focussed.

The physical model I derive, based on exactly such observed behaviors of tensionable media, fully supports the emergence and sustainability of such focused wave energies. I also advocate that gravity is not dependent on the existence of matter but rather that matter emerges from such focused gravity patterns.

On a side note: Your point about frequency is accurate but not part of my argument. I consider a wave, a wave, regardless of wether or not it is single pulse or a sequence of cycles. The improper use of the term frequency instead of wavelength to describe the color of a light photon has lead to such confusion in conversation. I make no mention of frequency in my discussion of transverse waves of light. These transverse or sheerwave pulses in a tension solid do account for both a sustained convergent behavior as well as the packetized and polarized properties of photons.

Cornelis

Cornelis,

If you want to investigate the interaction between discrete objects and fields, then you must apply a modeling environment that can handle both. I know only one suitable base model. That base model consists of the combination of a separable Hilbert space and its unique non-separable companion Hilbert space. The separable Hilbert space stores all discrete dynamic geometric data in the eigenspaces of some of its operators. The non-separable Hilbert space stores all continuum dynamic geometric data in the eigenspaces of some of its operators. It is possible to interpret that the non-separable Hilbert space embeds its separable companion. This embeds discrete objects into continuums. On my blog, I describe this approach in further detail.

Hans,

You say:

“It is possible to interpret that the non-separable Hilbert space embeds its separable companion. This embeds discrete objects into continuums. On my blog, I describe this approach in further detail.”

By embeds, do you mean that they are simply gradients within the continuum.

This is how I would define all discrete objects in my view.

This is mentally derive in my tension media model which has no discrete objects.

I believe dynamics patterns of tension redistribution in a nonlinear tension media is all that is needed to derive all the properties of matter and energy. I can envision however that to build a dynamic calculable mathematical model of this reality requires the separation of the dynamic and static conditions of the media into separate but linked fields.

Could you direct me more specifically to where you “describe this approach in further detail”

Sincerely,

Cornelis Verhey

Hans,

Consider that in a tension field waves can be both divergent and convergent based on the local stress/strain ratio.

Cornelia

In free space, no means exist to keep waves flat. They will diverge and wave packages will disperse.

Hans,

Not all waves are divergent.

Cornelis

You need special boundary conditions in order to keep waves beamed. Other field vibrations exist that can perform the job better than waves do.

Hans,

In tension media the curvature of wavefronts progress from divergence to convergence as the stress increases.

Cornelis

The second order partial differential equations describe the dynamic behavior of fields. These equations have several different kinds of solutions. Waves represent one of these kinds. They require a periodic harmonic activator. Shock fronts are other kinds of solutions. They are triggered by one-shot activators. They do not feature a frequency or the trigger must act periodically. The activator determines what kind of response the field will give. In my blog, I show that one-shot triggers are present that cause deformation of the field. When photons are emitted, then this also is achieved with (one-dimensional) one-shot triggers. All basic fields obey the same differential field equations. The activators determine what actually happens.

Hans,

No boundary conditions are needed in a tension field. This is evidence by the observation that a tension wave, pulse, vibration, between two points always transfers its energy completely and remains focused about a line between the points.

What triggers the vibration of the tension field?

Hans,

The trigger and source of energy for the transverse wave in the tension field is the result of a geometric transformation. That transformation occurs as longitudinal waves, responsible for the emergence of gravity and mass, become strongly focused, creating a tension boundary (above and below the ultimate tensile strength of the media) beyond which stress begins decreasing with strain. It is along this boundary that longitudinal wave energy transforms to transvers wave energy. In the tensile media once converted the transverse shock fronts can radiate outward without dispersion or loss of energy. The type of transverse wave pattern that ultimately emerges is dependent on the strength and geometry the surrounding wave energy that the emerging shock front encounters.

Cornelis

Another possibility is described in gravityforces.com . It’s up to you to have open mind and realize that facts should be the philosophical stone

Louis

In the post you said:

” Photons are not waves. They cannot be waves, because in free space waves tend to spread in all directions and quickly lose their amplitude.”

I consider that the propagation behavior of both light and gravity are governed by a single property analogous to tension. In tension media waves both diverge or converge (dependent upon the stress/strain property of the media). Based on this a theory is realized that derives all forms of energy and matter (including light) as specific tension wave geometries.

Cornelis

Cornelis, a field need not be a tension field. In fact, the target space of a multidimensional function can have many interpretations. The target space of a mostly continuous multidimensional function is a continuum that at the utmost features some point-like continuities. It is possible to define a Hilbert space operator that has this continuum as its eigenspace. Our living space, which embeds all elementary particles can be represented by such a continuum eigenspace. The elementary particles are the artifacts that cause the point-like discontinuities of the embedding field. These particles hop around vigorously in this embedding continuum. The hop landings cause spherical shock fronts. These fronts slightly deform the embedding field. In huge numbers, they have a serious impact on the field. Together, the hop landings form a coherent swarm. The hopping path and the location swarm represent the point-like particle.

Hans,

I believe the math still works, but from my interpretation, in a tension field with a nonlinear tension curve, at a point beyond the maximum tensile strength shockwavefronts become convergent. Repetative focused shockwavefronts then present as if artifacts appearing as point-like discontinuities that relocate (hop) with each successive progression cycle. Since each shockwave tugs intesly at the foci it results in what behaves like a point-like discontinuities in the tension field. Since this point-like discontinuity creates a boundary region that can no longer support a shockwave the subsequent wave is diverted to focus at a slightly different point, relocating (hopping) the focused wave pattern (partical).

Cornelis

Cornelis

In our living field, the actuators are hops of elementary particles that represent isotropic one-shot triggers, which cause spherical shock fronts. Other processes (e.g. the annihilation of elementary particles and the emission of photons by atoms) represent periodic one-dimensional one-shot triggers that cause one-dimensional shock fronts. These front proceed in linear strings. They need no focusing and they run in geodesics through their carrying field.

Please, when you are talking about light, call it light. There is a famous quote I like to use of Bohr describing his conversation with Einstein. It is very similar to this: “A photon will go one way or another at a beam-splitter, but if you re-converge the beam and give it time you will see interference.” This requires giving up visualizing what is going on. This is what we learn in school about quantum mechanics. There is no understandable model for photons. So please do not describe light in terms of photons, it is far too messy.

Now about that starlight argument. The brightness of a star’s light will make clicks at some given slow rate on a photomultiplier tube. But we can easily simulate that same slow rate in the laboratory. We use these rates to measure energy densities, and can tell how bright the star is, and how bright a laboratory light source is. There is nothing special about light going light years or say, a meter: it spreads as 1/r^2. Particles are not at all needed to explain dim light. The difficulty is those clicks. People say a photon hit to make a click. Here is where my experiment enters to show the distinction between: (1) a model for light whereby the light holds itself together, or (2) if light spreads without holding itself together. You can read it at http://www.thresholdmodel.com I show that gamma-rays, the most particle-like light, does not hold itself together. It makes coincident detection clicks past the beam-splitter, at rates exceeding chance. This is in contradiction to Einstein’s photon definition. In cases where this test looks like photons, it is really only seeing a random noise at the chance rate. This chance-noise has been falsely interpreted to support the particle-like aspect of the photon model. Many experiments have similar problems, and I have addressed these issues. Please, after any of you have read some of my works, I will answer questions. I have nece videos also. My experiments show that light spreads classically. I split the atom the same way. Thanks you. ER, 12/2016

I started my career in the development of image intensifier devices. You can think of them as imaging photomultipliers. The night vision image intensifiers turn each detected photon in a light spot. At very low dose rates you do not see waves. You only see hailstorms of impinging quanta. X-ray image intensifiers apply scintillating crystals that break the gamma photon into a series of lower energy photons. Also here every detected gamma photon is transferred in a light spot. At long ranges, photons keep their energy. At ultra-long ranges, red-shift complicates the picture. At long ranges, a wave would long have lost its amplitude because its energy is spread in all directions. A one-dimensional one-shot shock-front does not diminish its amplitude. It carries a standard bit of energy or if you wish information. I call these one-shot shock-fronts warps. Photons are formed by strings of equidistant warps. Warps travel with light speed. Warps are genuine solutions of a homogeneous second order partial differential equations. The carrier field is deformed by another type of shock-front. This time it is the spherical shock front. It is also caused by a one-shot trigger. The trigger is the landing of the elementary particle after a hop to another location in the embedding field. I call this type of shock-front a clamp. A clamp integrates into the Green’s function of the embedding field. The Green’s function represents the deformation of the embedding field that is due to the hop landing. It is curious that waves are so well known, while the shock-fronts are hardly known.