The Problem with the Michaelson Morely Experiment
Michelson was a brilliant experimental physicist who measured a length by means of counting the number of wavelengths of light. He also made comparisons of 2 distances in a right angle to each other. This very famous experiment is often referred to as MMX (Michelson and Morley’s Experiments). This experiment has not been clearly understood due to a lack of knowledge about light. The result of this confusion is SRT (Special Theory of Relativity) and GRT (General Theory of Relativity). Alternative interpretations are presented here. They are based on ideas presented by Bradley and Le Sage long time ago.
The real motion of light is defined by the vector sum c+v of ether wind v and light velocity vector c. This follows from the idea that a change of the ether wind must be equivalent to describing light in a different inertial frame. The real motion of light is observable only in focused light and indicated by the direction of such a beam. This beam direction is normally different from the direction of the normal to the wave fronts inside the beam. This is the case if the ether has a component w falling inside the plane of the wave fronts.
When we detect light coherently in telescopes and in interferometers we have no sensitivity to w and the relevant description is c(1+v/c) with v as the component in v parallel to c. Therefore, coherent detection means wave front detection or orientation of light. We have to discriminate between motion of light and orientation of light wave fronts. Interferometers and telescopes are blind to transverse ether wind w. Light moving between mirrors in laser cavities and in interferometers always takes the fastest (not shortest) way between 2 mirrors. Therefore, the mirrors define c(1+v/c) (and not c+v). This is a very important fact not observed by Einstein.
When we do the MMX test with light from a laser we have mirrors in the laser cavity and in the interferometer that are parallel to each other and also define wave fronts in light to be parallel to these mirrors. The mirrors imply constant boundary conditions on the wave motions and constant wave front orientations. Light speed is therefore constant c in relation to the ether and c+-v in relation to the equipment along the optical axis (transverse to mirrors). Transverse component w is without relevance. Stokes was therefore wrong when he reduced Michelson’s prediction by a factor of 1/2 due to w. The irrelevance of w has been stated many times during many years by this author without any response, neither for or against. See Stokes Was Wrong. If this link does not work try the following one: www.worldsci.org/people/John-Erik_Perssson. If the link does not work just type it in the browser.
The atoms in a crystal must control their separations by means of the ether since the ether is all there is. The effects produced on the ether move with the speed c in relation to the ether in both directions between 2 nearby atoms. These effects are balanced and result in a total zero force for a specific separation. The atoms are thereby informing each other about positions and this information is moving with the speed c+-v in relation to the equipment between 2 nearby atoms. In MMX information is moving with the speed c+-v in relation to the mirrors. In both cases we get the same second order effect. The searched effect is thereby compensated by atomic spacing and the test equipment is contracting and the effect in 2-way speed of light is compensated. This is not a contraction of space but means that the length of the mechanical old meter standard is contracting just as much as Michelson’s optical meter standard. MMX is therefore a useless method.
Since the effect searched in MMX also exists inside a laser cavity we get an other kind of compensating effect. This effect can be avoided by mounting the laser cavity in a right angle to both arms in the interferometer.
Observations of stellar aberration in a telescope is also based on coherent detection. Transverse ether wind w is therefore irrelevant in telescopes just like it is in interferometers. Instead of w the telescope is dependent on u the transverse motion of the telescope. Since the detector is moving during the time it takes light to move through the telescope we get a telescope error approximately equal to u/c (u<<c). The telescope must behave in relation to waves in the same way as in relation to particles. Stellar aberration is therefore also a useless method in relation to the ether wind. Bradley’s interpretation must be valid.
SRT is said to be supported by the behavior of atomic clocks in GPS (Global Positioning System). This behavior is called time dilation in SRT. However, time dilation is just an illusion produced by a clock dilation. Electrons in atomic clocks move forth and back in relation to the ether wind. This situation for electrons is analogous to the situation for light in MMX. However, in atomic clocks there is no compensating effect. The frequency of an atomic clock is therefore proportional to 1-(v/c)^2. For calculations see Light without Energy.
By using this relation we can calculate the effect related to GRT by assuming a vertical ether wind equal to the square root of potential of gravity. The clock effect related to SRT can be explained by a horizontal ether wind caused by satellite motion. This effect must be reduced by a factor of 1/2 since the satellite is not stabilized in direction of motion and we must take an average value of a squared speed. These effects are in good agreement to observations in GPS. The effect is thereby explained by one model instead of SRT plus GRT. For calculations see The Falling Ether.
The idea of a radial ether wind equal to the square root of the gravitational potential can explain the anomalous effect observed in the motion of the Pioneer space stations. The 2-way speed of light is changed by the ether wind proportionally to 1-(v/c)^2. The apparent reduction in the speed of the space stations is in reality an increase in the 2-way speed of light. These assumptions predict a change in frequency of about 1.5 Hz of a 2 Ghz carrier for a motion from 20 to 80 AU (astronomical units). This is in agreement to observations. For calculations see Pioneer Anomaly and the Ether Wind.
Le Sage’s Ether
The interpretations of stellar aberration and MMX presented in this article indicate that it was a great mistake to abolish the ether. We describe here an ether that looks entrained but is instead caused by an attenuation of the flow of ether particles caused by matter and thereby disturbing the spherical symmetry in the flow of ether particles. Therefore, the ether appears to be falling towards a gravitating body. This is in agreement to the ideas by Fatio and Le Sage. Therefore, it is more realistic to state that it is a property of the ether wind that is entrained by matter. According to Le Sage we should expect a very small shielding effect due to a non-linear and exponential function not present in Einstein’s and Newton’s theories. This means a very small deviation from superposition and linearity. See The Fourth Ether. This idea is also in line with ideas presented by Majorama and by him called apparent gravity. However, it is the opnion of this author that Majorama’s estimates are to large.
During a solar eclipse we can expect a very small reduction of the gravity from the combination of Sun and Moon. This idea is confirmed by observations with 3 different methods reported by Allais, Wang and Janos Rohan. All 3 report a time duration of about the size of an eclipse. When we interprete this indications we must remember that the indications represented a difference between a point value in a test mass and a value as a kind of average value over a large part of our planet. The indications can therefore be very small and we can also expect values in the beginning and in the end of the eclipse of opposite sign in relation to the effect in the middle. See About the Wang Eclipse.
The theory presented here contains no elasticity in the time concept. Instead the ether wind produces a second order effect on the frequency of an atomic clock. The Pioneer anomaly is also a second order effect. The elasticity in space is also eliminated and instead a change in the length of physical objects is introduced as a second order effect. The bending of light near our sun is explained by the ether wind instead of by a force of gravity. We do not need mass in light.
Conservation of Energy
The law of energy conservation plays an important role in physics. However, the abolishing of the ether means abolishing of the energy contained in the ether. If we include the energy contribution from the ether we open a possibility that the contribution from light can be zero. The interchange of energy between light and matter can be an illusion. Instead we can have an interchange between matter and ether. The presence of light can be regarded as an inter-mediator necessary for the process by providing information only. Light can be regarded as a helper only. See Light without Energy.
Light without energy can explain how bound electrons can radiate information without energy. Energy becomes relevant in this information field first when we place an electron in this field. A planet can move in relation to the ether by generating information without energy as a kind of wave function causing the ether to fall towards the planet. This means spherical symmetry and no net force on the body. This explains why the ether can resist speed but not acceleration since energy is demanded for changing this wave function. Perhaps light without energy also is the explanation to the fact that light can move over enormous distances.
The concept direction of light is in fact 3 concepts:
- The direction of a focused beam dependent on transverse ether wind.
- The direction of the normal to the wave fronts in laser cavities and in interferometers independent of transverse ether wind.
- The direction of observed wave front normal in a telescope also independent of transverse ether wind but instead dependent on the transverse motion of the telescope.
Due to these confusions regarding the behavior of light stellar aberration and MMX have been interpreted in error and are useless in relation to the ether wind and should therefore be ignored. Instead we should regard the following effects:
- Sagnac effect observed in the synchronization of time stations on Earth in the GPS system demonstrating a first order effect of the ether wind.
- The change in frequency in atomic clocks explained by only one model and the Pioneer anomaly. These 2 observations demonstrate independently second order effects.
- The bending of light near the Sun explained by the ether wind without the need to assume light to have mass. Two second order effects of opposite sign are demonstrated.
- Observations of a shielding effect in gravity during a solar eclipse observed by 3 different methods and explainable by ideas from Le Sage. A vertical ether wind equal to the square root of the gravitational potential has been suggested.
Today we can measure gravity on our planet with a resolution of 10^-9 and frequency with even higher resolution. It is therefore very important that we trust what our equipments are telling us.