No Preferred Frame
Maxwell’s equations are well known, but many scientists seems to have forgotten that these equations describe an aether. Maxwell translated the works of Faraday into mathematical form, and found thereby a value c on the speed of light. However, his theory is not complete, since he could not say what this speed was related to. Since we regard light to be a wave motion, we need an aether to define light’s state of motion, v. However, we do not know the value of v. We have failed in our efforts to identify v as a frame entrained by our planet, and also as an autonomous frame. These mistakes has opened the way for an absurd idea that light speed should take the same value in all inertial frames.
As a consequence of these mistakes it seems logical to test a more general concept, namely a field, v(r), instead of a frame. Since Maxwell found the wave equation by means of a second order differential equation it is logical to expect the general solution, c, to be completed with a constant (in relation to time) of integration, v(r). There is no logical reason stating that v(r) must be a frame. The complete solution is c+v(r), dependent on the aether wind. There is a very important advantage with representing aether wind with a field, namely the fact that such an aether wind can explain gravity. Another advantage is that such an aether wind can approach zero far away from our planet, meaning that our planet does not have to entrain the aether in the whole Universe. This makes the theory more realistic.
Although vector addition is allowed between c and v(r) we must remember that these two concepts are very different. c represents a process, but v(r) is a motion. Interferometers, cavities and light clocks have parallel mirrors defining boundary conditions that are relevant for the wave motion c, but not for the aether wind v(r). This means that the wave vector c is forced to be oriented ortogonal to the mirrors. The wave fronts in standing waves are therefore always parallel to defining mirrors, and aether wind blowing inside the plane of the mirrors becomes irrelevant for light behavior transverse to the mirrors, and aether wind transverse to light motion not observable in a coherent system. That means systems where light is generated by feedback and also systems where light is detected coherently in telescopes. The irrelevance of transverse aether wind means that, in coherent systems, we instead should describe light as c(1+s/c). Here s is component in v(r) parallel to c. This is the direction of a ray defined by c only.
The vector sum c+v(r) is valid for the direction of a focused beam, defined by max amplitude in a focused beam, but rays inside the beam do not depend on the aether wind in transverse direction. Since c is about one million times v this fact is easily missed, but there is a small difference between direction of light in coherent and in not coherent systems. The irrelevance of transverse aether wind means that stellar aberration reveals observer motion only, and cannot tell us anything about aether motion. We can also conclude that there is no effect of the aether wind in the transverse arm in MMX, and not in a light clock either.
Atoms in a crystal control their separations by means of the aether . What else? They cause changes in the aether , and these changes propagate with the speed c between atoms in two opposite directions and carry positional information. Michelson sent light with the speed c carrying positional information in two opposite directions. This means that two-way speed of light is reduced by the aether wind by the same amount as the reduction of atomic separations. The searched effect is thereby compensated, and MMX is a useless method in relation to the aether wind.
Detecting Aether Wind
We have seen that it is not possible to gain information about the aether wind by means of the stellar aberration, and not by Michelson and Morley’s method either. What we need is a system that can detect the one-way speed of light. Such a system has been available for many years. It is called the global positioning system (GPS), and is based on the times for one-way propagation of radio signals. The calculations are based on a frame translated, but not rotated by our planet and on one universal time.
The system provides positions with very high precision, and this indicates that the aether can be represented by an entrained frame, but this can be misleading. We can see this by regarding the fact that all transmitters are on the same distance from our planet, and all receivers are close to our planet, and the system can automatically eliminate constant range errors. This means that v(r) can be a field that is spherically symmetric in relation to our planet.
An aether wind represented by a spherically symmetric field is very interesting in relation to gravity, since such a system can explain gravity. If the aether is falling in direction towards our planet we can use the model for pushing gravity provided by Fatio and Le Sage long time ago. A statement by Petr Beckmann can be changed a bit from ‘gravity controls light speed’ to, the aether wind is the cause of gravity.
No time dilation
No effect in the transverse arm in MMX can indicate that we have a contraction of physical bodies that is 2 times the Fitzgerald length contraction (and 2 times Einstein’s space contraction). This can mean that we do not need the metaphysical time dilation, and not the GAMMA function either. The real effect in GPS clocks can instead be explained by an effect analogous to the effect in MMX. Orbiting electrons in GPS clocks move forth and back in relation to the aether wind. Although electron speed is lower than light speed the relative effect of the quotient v/c can nevertheless produce the same effect that was real, but not observed, in MMX. Therefore we can have a clock frequency changing as f[1-(v/c)^2], due to the aether wind.
The Falling Aether
By assuming an aether wind radial to our planet, and equal to the speed of a satellite, in circular orbit, at the same altitude as the aether wind, we can arrive at the same clock behavior as predicted by SRT plus GRT. The satellites will see aether winds tangential and radial to orbits of about 3.9 km/s in each direction. The satellite clocks are oriented transverse to radius of orbit, but they are not stabilized in relation to tangential orbit direction. This means that the effect of ether wind in tangential direction is reduced by half. This value is found as the average value of a squared cosine function. We get agreement to the theory of relativity.
Based on the same simple assumption we can find an explanation to the Pioneer anomaly as described in The Pioneer Anomaly and the Aether Wind. The 2-way speed of light, affected by ether wind from our sun, changes with range and causes this effect. It is also possible to predict the light bending near our sun due to the gradient in ether wind longitudinal to light. This is demonstrated in The Falling Aehter. Fatio’s aether model is also supported by different observations during solar eclipses, as demonstrated in About the Wang Eclipse.
Failures regarding consistent aether theories based on autonomous or entrained frames can indicate the need for a more general concept. An aether as an entrained field can be united with the high precision in the GPS system. An aether of this kind can explain gravity.
An other important notion is that boundary conditions implied by mirrors in cavities and interferometers have relevance in relation to the wave motion c, (defining ray direction) and not in relation to the vector sum c+v (defining beam direction). Therefore, transverse component in v becomes irrelevant in coherent systems.
Time dilation is not a needed concept. The behavior of atomic clocks in the GPS system can be explained as one effect of the aether wind, instead of as two effects of SRT and GRT.
This theory predicts that time dilation, due to GRT, should disappear if an atomic clock is changed from horizontal to vertical orientation.
Dr C C Su has suggested a method for measuring one-way light speed by a scaled down version of de Witte’s test. Two HeNe lasers, near in frequency, are connected with an optical fiber over a couple of meters, and compared in an interferometer. By using an advanced platform, elevation and azimuth angles can be changed. A small and linear phase error can be eliminated after the test.