Wave or Particle Confusion
This article explains the difference between the beam direction of light and the ray direction. The beam direction describes the real motion of light, observable only in a focused beam. The ray direction is relevant in coherent systems where orientations of wave fronts are detected, or generated, based on phase. The difference is therefore the relevance of the ether wind’s component that is falling inside the plane of the wave fronts. By regarding this important difference, we can conclude that we do not need the particle model for light.
The behavior of electrons
In the experiment with the photoelectric effect there is observed a kinetic electron energy, hf, proportional to frequency in monochrome light, that is illuminating a crystal and causing electrons to escape. In contrast to public opinion this kinetic energy can be assumed to exist in the electron in advance. The light can thereby be assumed to change potential energy by a force ortogonal to electron motion. An interference between a light wave and an electron particle orbiting with the frequency f can thereby explain how an electron can escape its atom.
In the same way an X-ray wave packet can cause an electron to escape its atom in the experiment called the Compton effect. When this escaping electron is captured by another atom a new X-ray wave packet (of lower frequency) is produced. We find that the Compton effect is explained by an electron moving from one atom to another atom. According to this interpretation Planck’s constant, h, appears to represent an electron property, rather than a property of light. Therefore, we can regard light to be described as waves only. The particle model for light is not plausible, since this model predicts a particle moving towards a crystal, in the photoelectric effect, to cause another particle to move away from the crystal.
The behavior of light waves
The real motion of light is a vector sum of wave velocity and ether wind. The wave velocity is a process propagating inside the ether with the speed of the ether wind. The wave velocity is many orders of magnitude larger than the ether wind. If light is focused into a beam we can observe the beam direction as the direction of maximum light intensity. The direction of a beam represents motion.
In coherent systems the situation is very different and based on phase and not intensity. This means that we instead detect wave front orientation and transverse ether wind becomes irrelevant. This orientation is represented by the wave vector, or the ray direction, always ortogonal to the wave fronts. The wave vector, c, in the ray direction is a practical tool, but it is the wave front that has the physical reality. The ray direction represents orientation of wave fronts.
The difference between beam (motion) and ray (orientation) seems to be unnoticed and these concepts have been regarded as identical. A probable reason to this is thinking in terms of particles, instead of in waves. We have therefore not observed the irrelevance of transverse ether wind in coherent systems. Transverse ether wind affects beam direction but not ray direction, and orientation of wave fronts is conserved. Ray direction can only be changed by means of a gradient in longitudinal ether wind.
Beam direction is c+v, but this is visible in focused beams only. In coherent systems light is instead visible as propagating according to ray direction as c(1+w/c), with w as component in v parallel to c. This represents not a difference in light behavior, but a difference regarding how light is detected (or generated).
Michelson and Morley
In interferometers and in laser cavities wave fronts are defined by orientation of mirrors and ether wind. Therefore, moving a test equipment inside the plane of these mirrors (and wave fronts) is irrelevant for light behavior, and wave front orientation (and ray direction) is conserved. Since ray direction is conserved, there can be no effect of the ether wind in the transverse arm in MMX. Stokes was therefore wrong when he introduced such an effect, and thereby spoiled Michelson’s prediction for MMX. He was probably influenced by the particle model for light. Stokes regarded c+v to be ortogonal to mirrors (instead of c only). Einstein repeated this error in his light clock, (that always moved transverse to light direction).
No effect in transverse arm in MMX means that we can avoid time dilation, and we can instead use a contraction of physical bodies 2 times the Lorentz contraction. The greater value on this contraction means that the reduction of 2-way light speed is compensated by this contraction. Compensated effect in longitudinal arm and no effect in transverse arm means that MMX becomes useless in relation to the ether wind.
By realizing that the ray direction is relevant in telescopes we can see that transverse ether wind cannot bend a wave font and not cause stellar aberration. Independent of the ether wind stellar aberration arises when motion along the ray direction is transformed from the frame of our sun to the frame of our planet. The same motion must have a new representation in the new frame. The same would be true if we used a particle track instead of a light ray. The same is also true for pulsar aberration, which is demonstrated by the fact that pulsar signals from a leading VLBI telescope are arriving about 4.2 microseconds earlier than those from the other telescope. Stellar aberration is useless in relation to the ether wind.
No time dilation
The behavior of GPS clocks can be explained by clock dilation instead of time dilation. Since electrons in the clocks move forth and back in relation the ether wind we have reason to suspect that this ether wind can cause a second order effect on the clock frequency.
The global positioning system
In contrast to MMX and stellar aberration the GPS systems is useful in relation to the ether wind. The reason is that 1-way light speed is the basis for measurements in GPS. An earth centered inertial frame can explain GPS functionality. However, we cannot assume our own planet to entrain the ether in the whole Universe. Therefore, we must use a local field instead of a frame, and that field must have spherical symmetry to explain the high precision in GPS. We can conclude this by regarding that all GPS transmitters are positioned on a spherical surface, and all receivers are on another sphere concentric to the first one.
Detecting the ether wind
The existence of the ether is proved by the Sagnac effect and the GPS results, together with experiments done by Ruyong Wang, whereby he measured velocity with the ether as the only reference.
An interesting method for measuring ether wind has been suggested by Dr C C Su. Two HeNe lasers are connected over a couple of meters to an interferometer. The equipment is mounted on an advanced platform, and phase changes are registered when direction of measurement is changed in elevation and in azimuth.
The falling ether
An ether wind in radial direction in relation to Earth can explain gravity. Since our planet is in a free fall we normally see only gravity from our own planet. However, there are some exceptions to this rule that occur when the point mass approximation is not valid. One example is tidal effects when gravity from Sun and Moon are not the same all over our planet. Another example is anomalies in gravity during solar eclipses. This effect is caused by the fact that combined gravity from Sun and Moon is not the same all over our planet.
- Light is waves, not particles
- GPS is useable, but MMX and stellar aberration are not.
- A falling ether can explain gravity.
- A falling ether can explain clock dilation, (instead of GRT).
- A falling ether can explain light bending near Sun by a gradient in longitudinal ether wind.
- A falling ether can explain the Pioneer anomaly.