A model for light
This post is about the duality between ray and beam as representations for light direction. In Michelson and Morley’s tests (MMX) the difference is only 10^-6 radians and not observed. In coherent systems the ether wind inside the wave fronts becomes irrelevant and the ray concept must be used.
In coherent systems refracting or reflecting surfaces are used to control wave fronts of light. These surfaces are relevant in relation to c, but not in relation to v. Wave fronts is all that is real, but we use the normal to the wave fronts as an abstract tool to describe light by the ray concept, defined by the wave vector, c. Instead the real motion of light is the vector sum, c+v as the beam concept that not is visible in coherent systems. The beam can only be observed when detection is made by amplitude and this demands focused light with beam direction represented by the direction of max amplitude.
In coherent systems like telescopes, interferometers, cavities, lasers and so called light clocks we must use the ray concept. So, in most kinds of optical experiments the ether wind blowing transverse to light propagation is irrelevant, and instead wave front orientation is conserved. Therefore, no sensitivity to ether wind in stellar aberration and not in the transverse arm of MMX either. A tragic mistake was done by Potier when he reduced Michelson’s prediction for MMX by half due to a supposed effect in the transverse arm. So, we find that the GAMMA factor is superfluous as well as the absurd concept of time dilation. (The ether is not superfluous.) What we need is instead a squared inverted GAMMA factor (1-v^2/c^2) that changes the 2-way speed of light. (The 1-way speed is ~1+-v/c.) In longitudinal arm contraction of matter also becomes equal to squared GAMMA. This is logical, since separation between atoms in a crystal is controlled by the effects that they produce on the ether, and these effects can be assumed to move with light speed. We can therefore explain MMX by the Galilean transform, without the need for dilation of time.
So, we find that in most experiments, where coherent methods are used, we should describe light as:
c(1+v.cosA/c) (A is angle between c and v). This is the ray concept.
- Potier used the beam concept, instead of the ray concept, in the transverse arm of MMX. He thereby misguided Poincaré and Lorentz to produce relativity theories. A correct interpretation of MMX means that we can apply Galilean transform and absolute time.
- Clocks in the GPS satellites are sensitive to ether wind tangential to orbits (instead of SRT) and radial to orbits (instead of GRT). These assumptions are in agreement to observations.
- MMX gave a negative contribution to theoretical physics.
- Physics went wrong when Einstein was a child.
The abstract in the previous post is expended to an article called: