The sad story of quantum gravity
The sad story of quantum gravity
The very old problem about the mysterious force of gravity is analyzed. It is found that Newton and Fatio were very close to a solution long time ago. However, they failed to explain the lack of aberration in gravity, and this mistake caused the end of a good theory.
Fatio suggested a quantum ether. He said that extremely fast and extremely small ether particles are moving in all directions, and thereby they constitute the ether. This brilliant idea has never been accepted due to a tacit assumption, that these particles were colliding with matter. This would mean that we should expect an aberration angle in the direction of gravity of the same kind as we see in light. So, it seems not realistic to assume collisions between ether particles and matter.
An alternative interpretation is to assume ether particles to be absorbed by matter instead. We must also remember that the force of gravity is defined by a product of 2 masses, m and M, in 2 different positions. This indicates an action at a distance, and therefore gravity must be caused by a concept that has information about m as well as about M. The only concept with this property is the ether. So, we can see that absorption in m produces an ether wind with spherical symmetry in relation to m, but not symmetry in relation to M. Without symmetry in M the ether wind causes a force to emerge inside M, and this force is directed towards m. This reasoning works also in opposite direction, and we therefore find that 2 antiparallel forces, of the same strength, are emerging inside m and M. So, gravity emerges after exchange of information between m and M.
It was an important mistake to assume collision instead of absorption of ether particles by matter in Fatio’s theory. We seem to prefer particles and collisions, since they are easy to comprehend, and waves and interferences are more difficult. We prefer the tool we know, in favor of what we need. The realism of the absorption idea is demonstrated in how X-ray wave packets are caused by absorption. Absorption inside a body reduces the number of ether particles leaving the body in relation to the number of arriving particles. So, a small difference in the flow in 2 opposite directions causes a radial ether wind according to Fatio’s model and explains gravity as an ether wind effect, and this means an action at a distance, but this effect is not spooky, and instead caused by the ether. So, we have found a third option where earlier discussions were limited to 2 options (no ether or constant ether), and the new option is an ether with a state of motion dependent on position. This is the radial ether wind in accordance with Fatio’s model.
We can therefore conclude that Newton made a devastating mistake by ignoring Fatio’s quantum gravity. So, we see that we need ether quanta to explain gravity.
The radial ether wind
A small body approaching our planet with a low inertial speed far away will hit our planet with a velocity equal to the escape velocity. The radial ether wind (escape velocity) from the Sun causes 2-way light speed (in radial direction) to increase 0.15 m/sec, when light (or microwave signals) moves between 20 and 40 A.U. (astronomical units) from the Sun. So, 2-way light speed changes with distance. This fact can cause an illusion, that Pioneer speed is changing with time, and this means that the Pioneer anomaly can be caused by ether motion – not body motion.
Remark. Since sending and receiving to and from Pioneer must be on different frequencies, there must be a local oscillator in the space station. Therefore, there is a possibility that the frequency of the local oscillator also is sensitive to 2-way ether wind.
The existence of an ether means that we have a Doppler effect in 2 steps, first source to ether and later observer to ether. Therefore, when we observe a celestial body not moving in relation to observer, but surrounded by a radial ether wind, we get 2 effects. First source to ether is giving a blue shift as f’/f=1+v/c. After that we get observer to ether giving a red shift f”/f’=1-v/c. So, total effect is f”/f=1-v2/c2 and we have a second order Doppler effect, normally small and ignored, but possibly very large for very large celestial bodies, and this means that the Big Bang anomaly can be caused by ether motion – not by body motion.
Einstein got the Nobel Prize for the introduction of the work function to better describe the photoelectric effect. However, he did not get the Prize for the reintroduction of light particles, and there is a good reason for that, since his use of the particle model for light is not realistic. Light particles moving towards the surface of a crystal cannot by collision with a bound electron particle force the electron to move away from the crystal at a right angle to the crystal.
A more consistent explanation can instead be found due to the wave model for light in a very simple way, by regarding a process that is reverse in relation to how X-ray wave packets are generated by absorption of electrons. This process can be understood as an interference effect between electrons in periodic motion and light in periodic oscillations, and we can assume such a process to be reversible. So, causing waves by capturing a particle can be reverse in relation to how a particle escape can be caused by waves. This means that the photo-electric effect can have a more consistent explanation by means of the wave model for light. Absorption and interference suits better than collisions in relation to the photo-electric effect. (Absorption worked also better in relation to ether particles to explain gravity.) This means that we do not need quanta of light. So, the light particles defined by Planck’s constant can be illusions caused by the fact that we use discrete electrons to detect light, and also due to properties of the hydrogen kernel.
The standard explanation to the radiation from the hydrogen states, that electrons are causing radiation only when they are jumping between stable states. However, it seems to be a very absurd idea to assume electrons to have capacity to switch radiation on and off. So, we have a strong reason to search for an alternative solution based on continuous radiation from bound electrons. Therefore, we should search for an explanation to the fact, that radiation from the primary frequencies is not observable, although interference products from differences in frequencies are observable.
All electrons in a specific state radiate at the same frequency, and are also sensitive to radiation at that frequency. They are therefore all in a kind of communication. They can therefore cooperate and adjust phase in such a way that the total radiation becomes very small. This is explained by a well-known wave property called destructive superposition. However, the interference products are generated in a very different way, and their radiation emerges in the space between the atoms. Therefore, these interference products cannot be supposed to be reduced by superposition, as the primary frequencies do. This means that we can explain continuous radiation by the wave model, and the hypothesis of quantum jumping is not needed, and not quanta of energy either. Instead, the discrete values of the radius of orbits can be described by the properties of electrons and hydrogen kernels instead. Therefore, we do not need quanta of energy.
- We need Fatio’s ether quanta.
- We do not need Einstein’s light quanta.
- We do not need Planck’s energy quanta.
We have found, that we can explain important phenomena in light by means of the wave model in a more consistent way than by existing theories based on light particles. This means that we do not have to assume quanta in light and in energy. We have also found that Fatio’s quantum ether can explain gravity, if we assume ether particles to be absorbed by matter, and not colliding with matter.
One important reason to the problems with gravity is that the ether concept was abolished only based on human failures regarding Michelson’s attempt to detect ether wind in second order effects, although first order effects have been detected by Sagnac and also in pulsar aberration. We can also see second order effects in the Pioneer anomaly and in the Big Bang anomaly. This is described in “How the concept ether can explain the Big Bang illusion”1.
Another important mistake is found in our very bad understanding of the wave model. So, it seems as the transition from light particles to light waves is not yet completed. This is described with more details in “The wave model for light gives better explanations to key phenomena in physics”2.
The wave model can also explain the Compton effect by 2 steps. An X-ray wave packet can cause an electron to escape. When this electron is captured by another atom a secondary X-ray wave packet is generated. In almost the same way we can explain photo-luminance.
2 J E Persson, PHYSICS ESSAYS 35, 1 (2022)