- The Particle Model Circuit Theory with a Supporting Experiment (2019) [Updated 7 months ago]
- The Particle Model Explains Parallel Resistors (2019) [Updated 7 months ago]
- Dark Matter vs. G (2018) [Updated 1 year ago]
- The Candle, The Light Bulb, and The Radio (2017) [Updated 2 years ago]
- Special Relativity is Not Needed (2016) [Updated 2 years ago]
- Light, Gravity, and Mass: A Particle Theory (2015) [Updated 1 year ago]
- The Gyroscope (2015) [Updated 4 years ago]
- Gravity is A Pushing Force (2015) [Updated 4 years ago]
- Aberration (2013) [Updated 3 years ago]
- The Wang Eclipse (2012) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Fundamentals of Gravity (2011) [Updated 3 years ago]
- A New Equation for Gravity (2009) [Updated 8 years ago]
- Majorana's Experiments and a New Equation for Gravity (2009) [Updated 8 years ago]
- The Graviton Equations (2008) [Updated 3 years ago]
- An Equation for G (2008) [Updated 3 years ago]
- The Graviton Experiment (2008) [Updated 3 years ago]
- Gravity Experiment 1 (2007) [Updated 8 years ago]

- The Particle Model Circuit Theory with a Supporting Experiment (2019) [Updated 7 months ago]
The Particle Model is a physical model of the universe. That is, all areas of physics can be explained using physical interactions of particles. Gravity, light, magnetism, electrostatics, circuits, and even chemistry can all be explained using particles. In the case of a circuit, the battery uses chemical reactions to emit G1 particles (also known as electrons, but with no charge). The G1 particles move through the circuit at speed 'c'. The G1 particle either passes straight through, or hits an atom and scatters, or it gets trapped as a G1 orbital. Using this concept, this paper describes how the circuit works; predicts a specific result; and then uses a series of 15 three-resistor circuits to show that the measurements support the Particle Model with a 70 to 80 percent correlation.

- The Particle Model Explains Parallel Resistors (2019) [Updated 7 months ago]
The equation for parallel resistors is well known, at least by scientists and engineers. Look up parallel resistors on the internet and you will get an equation that works. You an even find out how to develop the equation from existing equations. What is not known is how each resistor seems to know what the value of the other resistor is and adjust the flow of current properly. This paper describes how the circuit works using the concepts developed in the Particle Model. It's the Gravity 2 field that surrounds the two resistors and controls the flow of current such that each resistor gets the right amount of current.

- Dark Matter vs. G (2018) [Updated 1 year ago]
Dark matter was invented to explain the velocities of the stars at the edge of our galaxy and to make sure that Newton's gravity equation was still valid. Georges L. Le Sage suggested that gravity has a shielding property that explains how gravity works. Quirino Majorana did several experiments to prove that this property was valid. The author claims that the velocity of the stars in the galaxy indicates that there is a shielding effect and that it shows that we don't need dark matter and that Newton's universal gravitational constant is neither universal nor is it a constant.

- The Candle, The Light Bulb, and The Radio (2017) [Updated 2 years ago]
It's all about light waves and radio waves. There is a rainbow of light coming from a candle. There is white light coming from a light bulb. Radio waves come from a Radio station but the waves are not visible. But they all are based on the photon. The photon is considered both a particle and a wave since Einstein did his work on the photo-electric effect. This led to the wave particle duality of light. This paper investigates the candle and the light bulb to help understand light. It then replaces the photon with a stream of particles with a particle distribution that has a repetitive pattern. With this model there is no wave particle duality.

- Special Relativity is Not Needed (2016) [Updated 2 years ago]
Many people have proved to themselves that Special Relativity is wrong. They know about the paradoxes, they know about the bad assumptions, they know about the mathematical errors. And yet it is still hard to provide absolute proof that it is wrong. After all, there are many others that are proving it right. This paper describes two things that proved to me that Special Relativity is wrong. The model is wrong and the interpretation of what each observer sees is wrong. My conclusion is that the transformation of length, time, and mass are not needed.

- Light, Gravity, and Mass: A Particle Theory (2015) [Updated 1 year ago]
The electromagnetic spectrum including visible light is most often characterized by wave theory. But there are effects that indicate it has particle characteristics. Hence, there is an ongoing discussion of wave particle duality. There has been work trying to make a wave act like a particle. This paper uses a particle and provides a mechanism for it to have wave properties. If it is a particle, could the same particle that is the cause of EM radiation also be the particle needed for pushing gravity? And how does mass fit in?

- The Gyroscope (2015) [Updated 4 years ago]
Gyroscopes behave in very strange ways. Many demonstrations are given with little explanation just to keep the audience guessing. When you search for the answers, you are told that it is the angular momentum, the right hand rule and you are shown some equations. But the explanation is not very clear. This paper suggests that angular momentum is not the best explanation. Rather, linear velocity, cohesion, and gravity are all that is needed to understand the strange movements of the gyroscope.

- Gravity is A Pushing Force (2015) [Updated 4 years ago]
This document proposes that gravity is caused by an Electromagnetic EM wave that pushes an object as it passes through. There are other models that are based on pushing theories, but the presentation here suggests that the Electromagnetic Wave theory is the most appropriate.

- Aberration (2013) [Updated 3 years ago]
The aberration of light was discovered by James Bradley in 1725. It is caused by the finite speed of light versus the orbital speed of the earth. This combination causes us to see the star or the sun in a retarded position. Many scientists conclude that the speed of gravity must be very high or else the planets would spin out of orbit. This paper suggests that the speed of gravity can be the same as the speed of light and that the planets will not spin out of orbit.

- The Wang Eclipse (2012) [Updated 3 years ago]
The Wang eclipse has two bumps in the gravitational curve that have not been explained and therefore are called anomalies. This eclipse happened on March 9 of 1997 and Qien Shen Wang recorded the gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth during a full eclipse. The results of the measurements are reported in the paper titled ?Precise measurement of gravity variations during a total solar eclipse? [1]. The interesting point of his result is that the visual eclipse is shown in relation to the gravitational eclipse. If the measurements are accurate, we can then determine the speed of gravity relative to the speed of light. Also the two large bumps imply that the mass of the corona is very high. With the proper equations the speed of gravity and the mass of the corona can be determined.

- Fundamentals of Gravity (2011) [Updated 3 years ago]
This paper makes one basic assumption and then, by defining the terms and making some simple observations, provides conclusions concerning what gravity does. Included are Newton's three principles, the causality principle and the conservation laws. Based on this assumption, definitions and conclusions, several principles are developed and predictions made. This is not a document that explains what gravity is, but only what gravity does. A specific mechanism for gravity is not included.

- A New Equation for Gravity (2009) [Updated 8 years ago]
This paper describes the development of a new equation for gravity. The theory behind the equation is based on the work of Georges L. Le Sage. He proposed that there are "ultramundane corpuscles" (particles) coming at us from space. Most of these particles pass through objects, but a small number of them push the object. This causes a reduction in the number of partcles that leave the object. If the object is in space, then it is being pushed on all sides equally and there is no net force. In the case of the earth and the moon, the number of particles that pass through the earth to the moon are reduced. So there are fewer particles pushing the moon away from the earth then there are particles pushing the moon toward the earth. This net force is gravity. This new equation for gravity is based on this theory and is developed using four postulates.

- Majorana's Experiments and a New Equation for Gravity (2009) [Updated 8 years ago]
This paper describes the two experiments by Quirino Majorana and then uses the new equation for gravity to match the results. This new equation for gravity is described in detail in the paper titled "A New Equation for Gravity", see the Reference Section. The theory, the postulates, the derivation of the equation, and finally the data that validates the equation. This paper adds more data points to further validate the equation. Sr. Majorana is noted as an excellent experimental physicist, but ran into trouble with his theory. This paper uses the results of the these experiments to show that the theory behind the new equation for gravity is a better theory. The new equation for gravity can predict the loss of force measured in the two experiments while Newton's equation does not.

- The Graviton Equations (2008) [Updated 3 years ago]
Isaac Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation has no mechanism although Newton did propose that gravity could be caused by a particle called the fluxion. Einstein proposed that gravity was caused by the bending of space-time but also gives no mechanism. This paper proposes that there is a particle or a quantum called the graviton that is not an infinitely divisible field as proposed by the equations of Newton and Einstein, but a finite force which has effects that have a defined limit. Four postulates are proposed that lead to a step by step development of the graviton equation. The curves for gravitational acceleration are compared using measured data, Newton?s equations, and the graviton equation.

- An Equation for G (2008) [Updated 3 years ago]
The comparative results of the graviton equation to Newton's gravity equation show that the force curves and gravitational acceleration curves are similar but different. In an attempt to understand how they could be similar, a special case is developed that explains how this was possible. In the process, an equation for the gravitation constant

*G*was developed. These calculations from the graviton equation have shown that*G*in fact may be a curve and not a constant. However, in extreme cases, the equation for*G*is may be either invalid or not needed at all. But it may also help determine if the graviton is the cause of gravity. - The Graviton Experiment (2008) [Updated 3 years ago]
This paper describes and experiment which attempts to prove that the graviton or gravity quantum exists by using the concepts introduced by Argentinean physicist Dr. Ricardo Carezani. The experiment tries to find a difference between Newton?s empirical gravity equation and the equation developed for the finite quanta the graviton. The results of the predictions by the graviton equations give different results depending on the experimental setup. Several differences in the equations are discussed along with a general discussion of possible experimental setups. Although one experiment was performed, the setup had inherent difficulties and could not yield any conclusions. Variations of this experiment are proposed, but there may be other experiments that are easier to do.

- Gravity Experiment 1 (2007) [Updated 8 years ago]
Newton and Einstein equations for gravity both describe the path that bodies take in a gravitational field without providing a mechanism for that movement. Newton was the first to propose a possible mechanism for gravity, called a "fluxion", whose idea has evolved into the modern concept known as the "graviton". This paper describes and experiment whose purpose is to try and prove that the graviton exists using the concepts introduced by Argentinean physicist Dr. Ricardo Carezani.