Petr Beckmann Explains Michelson’s Failure
Action at a distance is absurd by logical reasons, so we need an ether as Einstein said. This ether cannot be autonomous since such a situation would, as we will see, make the global positioning system, GPS, impossible. We can therefore conclude that the ether must be, in some way, entrained, as Stokes said long time ago.
However, Stokes also said something that was not correct by stating that an ether wind, v, blowing transverse to light propagation could reduce light speed from c to . He based this reasoning on Pythagoras theorem and an assumption of spherical wave fronts. However, it was a mistake to apply spherical wave fronts to a standing wave in an interferometer. The wave motion of light, represented by the velocity vector c, is defined by the orientation of interferometer mirrors and nothing else. These plane mirrors define plane wave fronts parallel to these mirrors. Boundary conditions define light direction. Therefore, the wave vector c is always orthogonal to the mirrors and light always moves with the speed c in relation to the ether. In relation to the equipment light speed becomes . Stokes did not see that boundary conditions keep c orthogonal to interferometer mirrors and define a velocity and not a speed. Assuming for equipment related motion in transverse ether wind is logical in relation to the behavior c+-v for longitudinal ether wind. An ether wind blowing inside a wave front cannot change the orientation of the same wave front. Such bending is instead caused by a gradient in the longitudinal ether wind.
Ether wind, v, is caused by tangential motion of the surface of our planet in relation to the center of this planet. This means that is equal to about , and not as Michelson assumed. In relation to the ether the mirrors are moving with a very small speed inside their own planes when we assume a transverse ether wind. Motion inside the mirrors plane does not change boundary conditions on wave motion and light behavior. Therefore there are two reasons to the fact that this motion does not have relevance for light behavior and the experiment, MMX, cannot tell us anything about transverse ether wind.
Action at a distance is absurd and the ether must be the tool that is used to control the separation between atoms in a crystal or solid. This means that atoms in a solid exchange positional information based on the ether. This information moves in two opposite directions, probably with the speed c. Michelson’s experiment is also based on information moving in two opposite directions. We have therefore reason to suspect a compensating effect. This would mean that MMX cannot tell us anything about longitudinal ether wind either.
An omnidirectional flow of fast ether particles, neutrinos, can be attenuated by matter and cause a radial ether wind, or a falling ether. This is in agreement to the ideas by Petr Beckmann. Beckmann’s statement that gravity defines ether wind can be slightly changed to ‘the ether wind is the cause of gravity’. We cannot see such an ether wind blowing in direction towards our sun. The fact that our planet is in free fall and accelerated in direction towards the Sun can explain this. The radial ether wind caused by our own planet cannot be detected by MMX since this method is sensitive to horizontal ether wind only.
In a telescope the time between focusing and detection depends on the focal length of the equipment. The detector’s motion during this time interval causes stellar aberration. This fact does not depend on whether we assume a particle model or a wave model for light. We can also describe stellar aberration by a transformation from the frame of our sun to the frame of our planet. In very long base interferometry, VLBI, this effect can disappear if we use correct, GPS type, synchronization. If we instead assume, theoretically, that radio telescopes are assumed to be compared in real time by sending the information to a common point than the same aberration would be back. This effect would be caused by the ether wind’s effect on the transmissions of information between the points. We find that stellar aberration is caused by observer motion producing an illusion of wave front bending and telling us nothing about the ether wind.
We need an ether as we can see from a first order effect of the ether wind, called Sagnac correction, that is present in the GPS system. It should also be possible to observe the same first order effect by means of two HeNe lasers well stabilized in frequency and connected over a few meters to a phase sensitive detector. An effect of first order should be observable if the direction of measurements was changed between different elevation angles.
The second order effect of the ether wind is demonstrated in four different kinds of effects. In the GPS system the behavior of atomic clocks can be explained by bound electrons moving towards and along the ether wind (instead of time dilation). The Pioneer anomaly can be explained by radio signals moving towards and along an ether wind directed towards the Sun. The force of gravity can be explained as an effect proportional to a radial ether wind squared. The fourth second order effect is demonstrated by the bending of light near our sun. Although transverse ether wind cannot bend a wave front such bending is possible due to a gradient in longitudinal ether wind. This bending of first order changes sign in the point tangential to the Sun. A small difference can therefore produce a total and observable effect of second order.
Stellar aberration and MMX are useless in relation to first and second order effects of the ether wind. Instead we have four indications of second order effects and one indication of first order observed and one not yet tested, but testable with HeNe lasers.
After lifelong studies in physics the old Einstein concluded that the ether is needed in physics. This means that the young patent engineer who invented SRT in 1905 was wrong. Many errors were produced this year of 1905.
The excellent experimental physicist Michelson failed with MMX since the assumed effect on light speed was only , and not as assumed . Another error is the assumption that wave front bending is caused by transverse ether wind instead of by a gradient in longitudinal ether wind. A third error is disregarding the ether wind’s effect on atomic separations in solids.
The need for an ether is clearly demonstrated by the Sagnac correction in the GPS system, whereby a first order effect of the ether wind is compensated. This effect is caused by observer motion in relation to the center of our planet. It should also be of interest to search for a first order effect of vertical ether wind by means of 2 HeNe lasers.
The need for an ether is also demonstrated by 4 different second order effects of the ether wind. Explanations to these effects can be gained from an assumption of a vertical ether wind equal to the speed of a satellite in a circular orbit at the same altitude as the ether wind. These ideas are available at www.gsjournal.net if you search on my name under “Authors”. See for instance: “The Terrible and Magical Year of 1905”, “The Falling Ether”, “Pioneer Anomaly and the Ether Wind” and “Light without Energy”. My homepage is at www.naturalphilosophy.org/site/johnerikpersson