The illusion of time dilation, Big Bang and Pioneer anomaly
The illusions of time dilation, Big Bang and Pioneer anomaly
A classical mechanism in atomic clocks explains the behavior of atomic clocks in the global positioning system (GPS), by the state of motion of the ether, inside the clocks. Therefore, the concept dilation of time is a not needed and is just an illusion caused by dilation of clocks, instead. False support for time dilation has been given by an assumption, of a transverse ether wind to cause wave front tilting in stellar aberration and in the reference arm in Michelson-Morley’s tests (MMX).
An explanation to radial gravity by a radial ether wind, equal to the escape velocity explains Big Bang and Pioneer anomaly, by motions of the ether – not of light. Newton’s refusal to use Fatio’s hypothesis has relevance for the mistake of not observing the radial ether wind and thereby also missing an interpretation of gravity.
Atomic clocks produce frequencies, that are controlled by the frequencies in the electron’s orbiting. However, electron speed can depend on the ether wind and if the ether wind is falling inside electron’s orbiting plane than the electron motion has a component parallel to the ether wind. So, during one half of the orbiting period, this component is in the direction of the ether wind and in opposite direction during the other half period. The electron’s speed is therefore changing during each orbiting period. Therefore, the ether wind has a reducing effect of second order, in the clock frequency.
In MMX tests we see a comparable phenomenon, since the ether wind changes light speed in proportion to 1+v/c and 1-v/c, in 2 opposite directions. This reduces the 2-way light speed in proportion to 1-v2/c2 in MMX. We can expect an effect of the same type in atomic clocks. However, the ether wind affects only in one dimension of 2, in the orbit. So, it seems reasonable to assume an effect in atomic clocks to be half the effect in MMX. (We can also explain this idea by regarding that this component in the speed changes with time as a cosine function. So, effective value in speed is max value divided by 21/2 so we get a factor of 1/2 in resulted effect). Therefore, we have reason to assume an effect of ether wind equal to 1-v2/2c2 in atomic clocks for an ether wind inside the plan of orbiting.
The ether wind can also fall transverse to the orbiting plane. Perhaps this ether wind also has the same effect of 1-v2/2c2, since we have not observed clock frequency to depend on clock orientation. However, this problem is not analyzed in detail here, and therefore we can have alternative explanations on this point.
We have found that the relation Δf/f=-v2/2c2 can explain the same effect as SRT (theory of special relativity) in GPS clocks. However, we assume v to represent an ether wind due to clock motion instead of clock motion itself (equal to 3.87 km/sec) in SRT. But the same ether wind dependency can also be used to explain the same prediction as GRT (theory of general relativity). We can see this by using the escape velocity to give the same prediction as GRT. We use the escape velocity as a radial ether wind of 11.2 km/sec near Earth and 5.5 km/sec in a GPS satellite. But it is now important to regard that agreement to GRT is valid in radial direction only, since ether wind is a vector and gravity potential (used in GRT) is a scalar. Another important difference is that GRT predicts a change in 1-way light speed and ether wind indicates the same value to predict an effect on 2-way light speed.
We have found that the radial ether wind can explain, with only one model, the same effect as SRT and GRT can explain together, in atomic clocks. The misunderstood behavior of atomic clocks is not the only false support for time dilation. Another false support is the aberration in pulsar signals of 4.2 microsec in time of arrival of 2 signals from 2 synchronized signals received in 2 points separated by the diameter of Earth. This anomaly disappears when velocity vector – not positional vector – is changed from the frame of the Earth, to the frame of the Sun, with a difference of 10-4 times c. (It takes 42 milliseconds for light to pass between the 2 receivers.) Therefore, pulsar aberration is a Sagnac effect, and can therefore be united with the existence of an ether. The hypothesis of time dilation is not needed.
The illusion of time dilation
If light is focused into a beam, we can detect the direction of max intensity (beam) by the vector sum c+v, detectable based on amplitude. However, in light from a fix star we cannot see max intensity and must instead detect based on phase comparison in a coherent system and thereby find the normal to the wave fronts (ray) instead. To see this, we can regard wave fronts parallel to a flat mirror, and find that they are parallel also after reflection, independent of the value of the ether wind falling inside the wave fronts. This component in the ether wind is therefore irrelevant in coherent systems. Therefore, in coherent systems light should be described as a wave vector c plus just the component in ether wind, v, that is parallel to c. This direction (ray) is relevant in coherent systems. This fact means that ether wind inside the wave fronts has no effect in coherent systems, since light moves in relation to ether – not to equipment. We have missed the distinction between beam and ray. So, no effect of ether wind in stellar aberration and not in MMX transverse arm either. This is an important error, unobserved for 150 years and indicating that we do not understand the wave model. So, this confusion means that the transition from particles to waves in light is not yet finished.
Astronomical observations, based on moving light, must be corrected for observer’s velocity vector in relation to our sun. This is analogous to the compensation for position vector in relation to the Sun according to Copernic. This velocity compensation is the stellar aberration. So, transverse ether wind does not tilt a wave front and it was an important error to introduce this idea between 1882 and 1887. So, light does not take a longer way in the ether’s frame in MMX, transverse arm. Light takes the same way in the ether frame instead, and hits therefore a changing point on the detector. This mistake played an important role in the false introduction of time dilation and Lorentz transform.
The radial ether wind
Newton disregarded the hypothesis sent to him by Fatio, based on fast and small neutrino-like etherons moving in all directions. If we assume matter to absorb a small amount of these particles, we can see that an ether wind, blowing in negative radial direction, is produced, since a reduced number of etherons are leaving the gravitating body. The force of gravity indicates mass in the ether and ether should therefore behave like matter. So, an ether wind equal to the escape velocity is thinkable.
The Pioneer anomaly
The radial ether wind from the Sun can explain the Pioneer anomaly as we can see by using the escape velocity as ether wind. We find that 2-way speed of light is increasing with range in relation to the Sun and this fact can create an illusion of a decreased speed in the space station. This effect corresponds to a Doppler effect of about 4 Hertz in the 2.3 GHz carrier, between 40 and 70 AU (astronomical units).
The cosmological red shift
We suppose a celestial body surrounded by a radial ether wind, and an observer not moving in relation to that body. The ether wind causes a blue shift, in frequency 1+v/c, when ether motion is towards the source and a red shift, 1-v/c, when ether moves away from the observer. So, observed frequency becomes f(1+v/c)(1-v/c)=f(1-v2/c2). Therefore, a second order red shift is produced in 1-way light. This means that cosmological red shift is caused by a moving ether – not by a moving body. No Big Bang.
Newton said that he did not need the hypothesis sent to him by Fatio. This was a great mistake 300 years ago, and Newton seems to be confused by mathematics, since his law was derived from Kepler’s law based on pure mathematics. Newton did not see that his mathematical law demanded perfect spherical symmetry in a gravitating body, since nature is hiding this fact by producing approximate spherical forms in large bodies. This means that applying Newton’s law to physical bodies needs a modification of the law to make the law independent of spherical symmetry. So, we must apply the law to small volume elements and then integrate over volume in order to escape from the demand for spherical symmetry. This means that all parts of the body contribute to gravity in proportion to their densities, and also that the modified version can be united with Fatio’s model.
- Bound electrons in atomic clocks are sensitive to the ether wind due to classical mechanics inside the clocks. This means that one ether-based model explains the same effect as two relativity-based models in GPS clocks. And we do not need time dilation.
- A wrong assumption between 1882 and 1887 that light must take a longer way in the reference arm in MMX is in conflict with the wave model stating that light moves unchanged in the frame of the ether independent of motion of the MMX equipment transverse to light (no wave front tilting). This mistake gave us a false support for dilation of time and individual aging.
- Newton’s disregarding of Fatio’s idea was an important error and had the important effect that gravity has not been explained by a radial ether wind. This also means that we could not see that Big Bang and Pioneer anomaly are illusions caused by ether motions.
- Behavior of atomic clocks is due to classical mechanics – no time dilation.
- Gravity is caused by an ether wind.
- MMX is without wave front tilting.
- Stellar aberration is caused by observer motion and not by wave front tilting.
- Cosmological red shift is caused by ether motion. No Big Bang.
- Pioneer anomaly is caused by changing 2-way light speed due to ether motion.
We have not understood the wave model for light and the transition from Newton’s light particles to Maxwell’s light waves is not yet completed. More details regarding the confusion in modern physics are available in the article The wave-particle dilemma in light1 available (after demand; copy right) on: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John-Erik-Persson/research
1J E Persson, PHYSICS ESSAYS 34, 2 (2021)