## Gravity does not move!

**Gravity does not move!**

John-Erik Persson

**Abstract**

The speed of gravity has been a much-discussed concept. However, in this article it is demonstrated that gravity does not move at all. This conclusion is based on a theory of quantum gravity, that was presented by Fatio 300 years ago. It is found that Fatio’s model was abolished on false grounds, due to the lack of aberration in gravity.

**Fatio’s model**

Fatio explained gravity by an ether composed of extremely fast and extremely small particles, moving in all directions. These particles are assumed to penetrate large amounts of matter, with only a small amount of them being lost in matter. This idea was regarded as absurd in Fatio’s time. However, today we accept particles with this kind of extreme behavior; we call them neutrinos. So, neutrinos (or neutrino-like particles) can constitute the ether and also cause gravity.

According to the
common assumption Fatio’s ether particles are assumed to collide with matter.
Instead, we assume here that these particles are absorbed by matter. This means
that gravity emerges inside matter due to absorption and no real forces are
moving between bodies. Instead, changes in the ether are moving between two
bodies and converted to forces *after* this motion. This is done by
absorbing ether particles and thereby harvest energy from the ether. So, the *ether*
*affects matter* by creating forces inside matter.

We have also an
effect in opposite direction, also caused by absorption. Due to absorption the number of particles
leaving a body is reduced and the dominating arriving particles produce an
ether wind in negative radial direction. This ether wind explains gravity, and
we can state that gravity is caused by those ether particles that are absent in
the ether flow, due to absorption. So, *matter affects ether* by producing
a radial ether wind.

Interaction ether/matter works in both directions and Fatio’s model has been abolished on false grounds, since gravity does not move in the form of a force. Therefore, no aberration. Fatio’s gravity model is based on quanta due to behavior of etherons. This quantization is different from Planck’s idea based on electron behavior in photocurrents.

**Newton’s
model**

Newton found his
model by pure mathematics from Kepler’s laws, and predicted a spherically
symmetric field. He did not observe that this symmetry also demands *perfect*
spherical symmetry in the body that generates this field. This fact is not
easily observed, since gravity produces *approximately* spherical symmetry
in large bodies; thereby hiding a mathematical demand to Newton. We therefore see
a need to make the model more general. We can do this generalization by
applying the law to small volume elements and then integrate. This converts
Newton’s mathematical law to a physically usable model independent of the form
of the body that causes gravity.

The need for modification of Newton’s law is demonstrated when space stations are landed on the Moon. In near circular orbits around the Moon in low altitude is observed a slightly stronger field of gravity in a position over a mountain in relation to over a valley. So, form has an influence very close to the gravitating body. This effect disappears very fast when range is larger than the height difference mountain to valley, since the Moon is almost spherical.

When Newton’s model is modified in this way, we find that his model can be united with Fatio’s model. We see this, if we assume that the ether flow is attenuated – by absorption – in proportion to density in all points in the body causing gravity. We do not need GRT (general theory of relativity). Instead, gravity is emerging inside matter due to the ether. So, if Newton had listened more to Fatio we could have had a gravity model that could explain gravity today.

**Gravity**

The idea that gravity moves as a force from A to B is logically impossible, since the force of gravity is defined as a product of the 2 masses. This would mean that the mass in B must be known in the point A. This is absurd. Therefore, the force of gravity cannot be real until information is exchanged between A and B. So, A and B exchange information via the ether and after that the 2 forces emerge in A and in B, by energy from the ether. The common interpretation of Newton’s law is in conflict with the demand for locality, since the information about mass in B is not available in point A.

The fact that gravity is emerging inside matter can explain why we see no aberration in a gravity that is not moving. Emerging gravity means no transfer of energy between A and B and the ether provides instead the needed energy. This means that we have done a great mistake by using the law of energy conservation without regarding energy to and from the ether.

**The falling
ether**

A radial ether wind explains gravity and interaction ether/matter indicates matter also in the ether. Therefore, we can suspect the radial ether wind to be equal to the escape velocity. This assumption opens a possibility to explain the Pioneer anomaly.

The escape
velocity, *v* (=42.2 km/sec at the Earth’ distance from the Sun), is *decreasing*
with the distance to the Sun in proportion to 1/r^{1/2}. Therefore, the
2-way speed of light is *increasing* with range due to ether wind *v*
as a second order effect in proportion to 1-*v ^{2}*/

*c*. This

^{2}*increase*(in 2-way speed of light) can simulate a

*decrease*in the speed of the Pioneer space station. This effect is in agreement to observations; as we easily can see by doing a simple calculation. So, we find that Pioneer anomaly is caused by

*ether motion*– not by body motion.

We can also use
a falling ether equal to the escape velocity to explain the Big Bang anomaly
for a distant celestial body that not is moving in relation to an observer. We
find that ether wind towards the source causes a blue shift in frequency. The
ether wind moving away from the observer causes instead a red shift. Therefore,
these effects together create a red shift of second order. So, we find that the
Big Bang anomaly is caused by *ether motion* – not by body motion. So,
cosmological red shift can tell us the mass of celestial bodies.

**Forces in
light do not move**

Transverse forces in light affect a charged particle in proportion to the magnitude of the charge. Therefore, these forces cannot be real until light reaches the charge. (This idea is based on the same reasoning regarding locality as earlier was applied to gravity.) So, when we use a telescope, we use a system that is designed to detect a moving wave front by a detector, that also can be moving. The system therefore detects the difference between 2 velocities, and the system is sensitive to its own motion. Therefore, stellar aberration is in reality a telescope aberration that creates an illusion of wave front tilting. We can also conclude that the transverse forces in light are not realized until light reaches an electron in a photodetector or inside the human eye.

The same
illusion of wave front tilting, as in stellar aberration, also appears in the reference
arm in Michelson’s tests together with Morley. These tests use coherent
technology, based on mirrors to define wave front orientation, **c**, and
not the vector sum, **c**+**v**. Therefore, Potier made an error in 1882
by assuming light to take a longer way, due to transverse ether wind, and
thereby he gave a false support for time dilation. SRT (special theory of
relativity) is wrong, and not needed. He did not regard that light moves in
relation to the ether, not to equipment.

**Summary**

The forces of gravity between 2 masses m and M are proportional to the product m·M. However, the value of m is not known in the position of M and vice versa. Therefore, both masses first cause changes in the ether and then these changes are propagated between m and M. After this communication the product m·M is defined and 2 forces are emerging in the 2 bodies due to effects by the ether. This is in agreement to the demand for locality.

The demand for locality can also be applied to the case of light hitting a bound electron. Since the force on the electron is proportional to the value of the charge, we see that this force cannot be real until the light is hitting the electron. Therefore, the force on the electron must emerge inside the electron due to the ether.

(It is assumed
here that the photoelectric effect is caused by an interference between light
oscillations and oscillations in bound electrons. This explanation, based on
the wave model, was presented by Lenard and is in conflict with, Einstein’s
particle model. See ^{1}“The
wave-particle dilemma in light” and find that the we only need the wave model
for light.

**Result**

- The forces of gravity between 2 bodies are not moving in the form of a forces. Instead, these forces emerge in both bodies as effects of the ether.
- The forces in light are not moving in the form of forces. Instead, these forces emerge inside a charged particle as effects of the ether.
- The Pioneer anomaly and the Big Bang anomaly are not effects of motions of bodies. Instead, these anomalies are caused by misunderstood motions of the ether.
- Observing moving light means that observer’s motion is relevant. Therefore, stellar aberration is in reality telescope aberration.
- The ether wind is detectable. You feel this effect just now in your bottom.

**Reference**

** ^{1}**J E
Persson, PHYSICS ESSAYS

**34**, 2 (2021)