## The Behavior of Light

# Light

The description of light has shifted from a particle model to a wave model. However, this shift appears to be not really completed. The wave or particle confusion indicates a mixture of concepts from both models. One reason to this confusion can be the denial of the aether concept. A wave model demands an aether and this aether defines the reference for the wave velocity **c** in relation to the aether. This has been demonstrated by an integration of a second order differential equation. The result is **c**+**v**(**r**) with **c** as a *universal* constant and **v**(**r**) is a constant of integration as defining the aether wind **v**(**r**) as a *local* constant independent of time t. A second integration is needed and this integration gives **c**t+integral of **v**(**r**)dt where *v*<<*c*. Therefore, we can describe the real motion of light as an approximation by the vector sum** c**+**v**(**r**). However, it is difficult to detect the direction of light motion in this meaning. We can do this only by detection based on amplitude in focused light (not coherent detection).

Coherent light generated in laser cavities and in inteferometers also moves according to this description but we cannot observe this motion in phase sensitive systems. The reason is that transverse aether wind is without relevance for coherent systems where feedback from parallel mirrors define **c** and not **c**+**v**. When light is locked in between parallel mirrors light always takes the fastest and not the shortest way between mirrors. This means that we get *plane* wave fronts always parallel tio the defining mirrors. We can see this important fact by realizing that transverse aether wind is equivalent to moving the test equipment inside the planes of the mirrors. Boundary conditions implied by the mirrors do not change and the behavior of light does not change either. Therefore, it is not possible for a transverse aether wind to tilt the wave fronts. It is therefore wrong to use the model for spherical wave fronts in the way that Stokes did when he used Pythagora’s theorem to explain an effect of transverse aether wind in Michelson-Morley’s tests. Einstein used the error by Stokes and added another error called time dilation. They were both wrong and time dilation does not exist. This means that relevant light motion in Michelson-Morley’s tests is **c**(1+*v(l)/c) *with* v(l)* as the longitudinal component of the aether wind **v**.

The irrelevance of transverse aether wind in coherent systems means that stellar aberration cannot tell us anything about the aether wind. Instead stellar aberration is an indication of *changes* in the state of motion of the observing telescope. Therefore, the explanation of stellar aberration for the particle model for light is valid for the wave model as well. Instead of a real wave front bending due to the aether wind we get an *illusion* of bending due to a telescope error.

The time dilation ‘observed’ in the GPS system is also an illusion. The effect is instead produced in the atomic clocks by electrons being accelerated and decelerated during each orbit around their kernels. Since the speed is changing we get a second order effect in these clocks. This means dilation of *clocks*. Instead of elastic space we get elastic solid bodies. This effect is 2 times the effect suggested by FitzGerald. Therefore, the aether wind causes an effect in 1 dimension. This contraction of solid bodies compensates the effect predicted by Michelson in 1 dimension that is in the longitudinal arm only. The effect is explained by the fact that atoms in solid bodies are positioned by means of the aether and therefore nearby atoms exchange positional information by means of the aether. This information moves in 2 opposite directions with the speed *c* just like the light does in Michelson-Morley’s test.

# Energy

The law of energy conservation is an important part of modern physics. Therefore, it is very important that we include the contribution from the aether to the energy balance. We must also remember that the electromagnetic forces in light are only *potential.* This means that these forces become real first when a charged particle is introduced into the light. An important consequence of this fact is that we can regard energy to be provided by the aether instead of by the light. This means that energy not necessarily has to be transported by the light. This can explain destructive superposition in light by assuming light as only an intermediary in an energy transfer between aether and matter.

A hypothesis about light that not is transporting energy can help us to explain how bound electrons can radiate the blackbody radiation without losing energy. We can also explain the photoelectric effect by light according to the wave model making interference with the orbiting frequency of a *tightly* bound electron. A force in a right angle to motion can change the electron’s *potential* energy and the electron can therefore escape if kinetic energy is high enough. We can also explain the Compton effect by assuming X-rays to be directed packages of light (needle radiation). Such a packet can cause escaping just in the same way as was observed in the photoelectric effect. This free electron can later be captured by another atom and produce needle radiation with some what lower frequency. The Compton effect is thereby explained as 2 processes.

These explanations are more realistic than assuming a collision causing electrons to move in the direction from where the colliding light particle is coming. It is also illogical to explain a particle theory with a wave concept, namely *hf*. We must also remember that Plank’s law of radiation does *not* represent energy until the law has been integrated over the frequency range. Quantization in light is therefore *not* proved by this law.The illusion of quantization can perhaps be related to the fact that Planck used thermodynamic probability in the derivation since this probability is quantized.

# Aether

The aether must explain gravity and Le Sage gave us such an explanation by means of fast material particles moving in all directions. Since this flow of particles is attenuated by matter he could explain gravity as a shadowing effect of this attenuation. A disturbance in the spherical symmetry in this flow is caused. This disturbance gives the ether a net motion in direction towards a material body. This falling ether can explain gravity. The gravity on our planet is thereby described by an aether wind in vertical direction. Gravity and ether wind from our sun seems to be compensated by the fact that our planet is in a free fall in relation to our sun.

Support for a theory of this kind is found in the Pioneer anomaly. The space station is in a free fall in relation to our sun and aether wind in direction towards our sun causes a second order effect in the 2-way speed of light. This effect depends on the distance from the sun and can therefore explain the Pioneer anomaly.

Transverse aether wind cannot bend a wave front. However, a gradient in longitudinal aether wind can bend a wave front. Such bending of first order that changes sign in the middle can produce a total effect of second order. This can explain the light bending near our sun without attributing mass to light.

# Conclusions

- Instead of a real motion of light due to
**c**+**v**we find that only**c**defines the observable direction in most experiments since transverse aether wind becomes irrelevant in phase sensitive systems. - Potential electromagnetic forces becomes real first when we detect them by means of a charged particle. Therefore the energy can come from the aether and light can be without energy. Bound electrons can therefore radiate without losing energy and the wave model can explain light.
- The aether wind can change the frequency of an atomic clock and cause the Pioneer anomaly and also cause light bending near our sun.
- Planck’s radiation law must be integrated before it can represent energy. Quantization in light is therefore not proved, but is instead an illusion caused by a wrong assumption about monochrome blackbody radiation.

# Confusion?

The wave or particle confusion can be explained by light as waves only and aether as particles only. Can this idea be reasonable if we assume mean separation between aether particles to be small in relation to the wavelength of light?

# References

**John-Erik Persson**

john.erik.persson@gmail.com

“Huygens further hypothesized that light propagates as a longitudinal compression wave. In a

longitudinal wave the displacement of the medium-particles is parallel to the direction of travel of

the wave; there are regions of high pressure, compression, and regions of low pressure,

rarefaction. In a light wave, Huygens argued that the ether molecules move forwards and

backwards; where they are compressed together, a compression results; where they are forced

further apart, there is a rarefaction.”

Tesla proved that the aether molecules are electrons.

Dirac wrote: “As a result of this oscillatory motion, the velocity of the electron at any time equals the

velocity of light. ”

So you are right. “The wave or particle confusion can be explained by light as waves only and aether as particles only.”

S*