The Behavior of Light #2
The transition from particle model to wave model for light has not been completed, and some particle thinking remains. We see this in the wave or particle confusion, and the effect of that is that many old experiments have been interpreted in error. An early and very important mistake was the ignorance about the fact that the ether wind transverse to light becomes irrelevant in coherent systems. Today advanced systems, like GPS and Pioneer space station demonstrate that we have to change our thinking. This indicates a possibility that Faraday’s ether and Fatio’s gravity can be united with the GPS experience.
The direction of a beam of light is the direction where intensity (or amplitude) is at its maximum value. This direction is described by the vector sum of wave velocity c and ether wind. c is constant in relation to the ether wind. c is a process and very different from ether wind, but addition of velocities is nevertheless valid.
The ray direction is the direction of the wave vector c defining the orientation of the wave fronts. Coherent systems detect (or define) c ( not the vector sum). In a cavity light speed is defined by ether wind and by boundary conditions due to mirrors. Thereby light takes the fastest (not the shortest) way between mirrors. Boundary conditions do not change when we movie the mirrors inside their own planes. Standing waves in cavities and in interferometers have therefore always wave fronts that are parallel to defining mirrors. Telescopes are sensitive to phase and therefore detect wave front orientations.
The difference between beam and ray
Beam direction defines the real motion of light as a vector sum.
The ray direction defines wave motion as c(1+v/c) and c(1-v/c) and depends on v only (and not on w), where v is longitudinal ether wind and w is transverse ether wind. The fact that w cannot be detected by phase means that w is irrelevant in coherent systems.
The irrelevance of transverse ether wind means that stellar aberration cannot tell us anything about the ether wind. Stellar aberration is caused by changes in u, the telescope’s motion transverse to light direction. This follows from the fact that a telescope detects motion in relation the telescope itself. We can see this by regarding the finite time between focusing and detection in telescopes. Stellar aberration is a telescope property, that does not depend on what light model we use.
Transverse ether wind
The irrelevance of transverse ether wind means that there cannot be any effect of the ether wind in the transverse arm in MMX. By the same reason, there can be no effect in Einstein’s so called light clock. Michelson’s assumption in longitudinal arm of a speed c+v and c-v should logically be followed by speed (c^2+w^2)^1/2, as the speed in the transverse arm, if speed in relation to ether is c in both arms. We can also conclude that w cannot bend a wave front. Instead, the reason to such a bending is a gradient in v.
Longitudinal ether wind
Longitudinal light speed c+v and c-v reduces 2-way light speed. The only tool crystals can use to control atomic separation is the ether. Therefore, atoms exchange positional information by means of the ether with speeds c+v and c-v. This means that atomic separations are reduced in the same way as 2-way speed of light. Consequently, the effect expected by Michelson is compensated by contraction of physical objects. Therefore, Michelson’s optical meter standard depends on the ether wind to the same amount as mechanical meter standard in Paris. This contraction is 2 times the Lorentz- Fitzgerald contraction.
Detecting the ether wind in coherent systems mean that relevant light description becomes c(1+v/c) and c(1-v/c), independent of w. Ignorance of this fact has caused many errors in the interpretations of experiments regarding light and ether. One example is Einstein’s light clock, that is independent of w. However, if Einstein had changed the orientation of the clock by 90 degrees, he would have found an effect of v that is 2 times the effect he stated due to w.
Modern technology has given us new evidences regarding the ether wind. Instead of time dilation we find a 2 times greater clock dilation. Bound electrons in atomic clocks move towards and along the ether wind. The speed in orbit changes therefore during each period and causes an effect of second order, like the real and invisible effect in MMX. In MMX the effect is not only compensated, but also much smaller than expected. The effect is caused by the rotation of our planet, and therefore as small as around 10^-12. Such a small effect is important to science, but in most cases not important to technology.
The GPS System
The global positioning system uses a compensation called Sagnac correction. This means that raw data regarding speed are related to the center of our planet. The high precision in GPS can therefore be united with a constant ether wind, represented by a frame in the same state of motion as the center of our planet. However, it is not common sense to assume our planet to entrain the ether in the complete universe. We can find a solution to this dilemma by regarding the facts that all transmitters are on the same distance from our planet, and all receivers are near our planet. Therefore, the ether wind must not necessarily be represented by a frame, in order to explain the high precision in GPS. Instead, the ether wind can be a field, that has spherical symmetry in relation to our planet.
Based on these ideas we can define an ether wind radial to our planet and having the same speed as the tangential ether wind due to speed for a satellite in a circular orbit. The clocks are assumed to be stabilized transverse to radial ether wind but not in relation to tangential ether wind. The effect of tangential ether wind is therefore reduced by half. These assumptions make it possible to calculate clock slowing due to radial and tangential ether winds. These clock dilations are in good agreement to time dilations from SRT and GRT. However, the effect of 2 mechanisms is substituted by an effect of 1 mechanism.
By representing the ether wind by a field (instead of a frame) we arrive at 5 positive conclusions. The first: the Earth does not have to entrain the ether in the complete universe. The second: this ether can explain gravity. The third: this ether can explain the Pioneer anomaly. The fourth: this ether can explain the bending of light near our sun as an effect of the gradient in the longitudinal component v of the ether wind. The fifth: this ether can explain anomalies during solar eclipses and tidal effects as caused by situations when the point mass approximation no longer is valid, and we therefore cannot use Newton’s or Einstein’s gravity models. However, we can use Fatio’s model.
To See the Light
We cannot see the behavior of light. Instead we observe the behavior of electrons, exposed to light and seen in photocurrents. These electrons are discrete and contain quantized charge and mass. Since the electron is our quantizing detector, we cannot see if quantization exists already at the input to the detector. Another problem is the application of the energy conservation law. We do not know how the ether contributes in this respect. We do not know if light transports energy. Perhaps light only contains information needed for interchange of energy with the ether. This assumption means that we can explain destructive superposition in light without conflict with the law of energy conservation.
X-rays are generated as wave packets (not particles) that are produced when a fast electron is captured by an atom in a crystal. Compton effect can therefore be explained by a process in 2 phases. The first one is the reverse of X-ray production. The second phase is the reverse of the first one, and therefore equal to X-ray production, but generating at a lower frequency. These 2 processes means changes in potential energy for tightly bound electrons. We can explain this by an interference between a wave and an electron. In the same way we can explain photoelectric effect equal to the first phase in the Compton effect. However, this equality does not demand wave packets to exist in the photoelectric effect.
It is not easy to see the invisible. The use of blackbody radiation to prove quanta of light is also problematic, as we can see by regarding the fact that the radiation law does not represent energy, but instead the partial derivative of energy in relation to frequency. This derivative has no physical meaning, and is therefore a kind of mathematical tool not proving physical properties. Another problem is our use of a detector producing quantization to prove that quantization already exists on its input side. We have many uncertainties regarding quanta of light.
Faraday studied the ether for many years. He united electric and magnetic forces. He also invented the electric engine, the electric generator and the transformer. His great works were translated to mathematical form by Maxwell, since Faraday was not educated in mathematics. He was a book binder.
Fatio assumed a flow of fast and small particles moving in all directions. He assumed matter to reduce this flow and produce an unbalance surrounding a massive body. Gravity was thereby explained by a difference between a pushing and a pulling force. Fatio’s idea indicates that an ether wind in radial direction towards a massive body can explain gravity. Fatio’s gravity can be united with Faraday’s ether and also with the GPS system. Fatio’s model indicates that the ether can define an upper limit on the force of gravity, which happens when the pulling force approaches zero.
An ether wind blowing in direction towards the Sun, and decreasing with distance from the Sun, can cause the 2-way speed of light to increase with distance. This increase can produce an illusion of a decrease in space station speed, detected by the 2-way Doppler effect in the Pioneer anomaly..
When we do experiments using coherent technology in optical systems the component in the ether wind transverse to light propagation becomes irrelevant. Ignorance about this fact has caused errors in the interpretations of many older experiments. However, today we have advanced space technology, satellite navigation systems and eclipse observations that tell us a very different story. Maybe we will see that today’s advanced technology can be united with ideas from Fatio and Faraday.
Acceptance of these ideas would also give us an upper limit on the field of gravity and also make the concept apparent mass to be of interest. The gravity from a homogenous sphere would not have a linear increase with the radius for very large bodies, but follow an exponential function of radius of body (not range from the body) and approaching an upper limit.
If we assume a falling ether to cause gravity, than perhaps the cosmological red shift could be a gravitational effect indicating mass of celestial bodies instead distance to the bodies.