Stokes and the Twin Paradox
Many scientists have provided strong and correct evidences against time dilation. In this article the ambition is instead to find the first error, in a long chain of mistakes. It is demonstrated here, that a very early error was done by Stokes in his ‘correction’ to Michelson’s prediction for his experiments together with Morley (MMX). Stokes’ mistake was that he assumed the vector sum c+v to be controlled by mirrors, instead of realizing that the mirrors have relevance for c, (but not for v).
The behavior of light waves is defined by the ether in two ways. The ether defines the wave velocity c to be constant in relation to the state of motion of the ether, (the ether wind). However, the ether also provides the reference in this ether wind v, that is constant in time, but can depend on position. Therefore, v=v(r), and light motion becomes ct+integralv(r)dt.
Although we can use vector addition we must remember that c and v(r) are two very different concepts. c represents a moving phenomenon, and this explains why a moving observer can see aberration as a change in apparent light direction. This is the so called rain drop effect. On the other hand we see that v(r) is constant for a constant position r, which also is valid for gravity, that is related to v(r). Therefore, we can see that gravity without aberration is explained by zero speed of gravity. This is in contrast to ideas presented by van Flandern.
Another very important difference between c and v is the fact that the dynamic process c depends on the boundary conditions, implied by mirrors in coherent systems. However, the local and stationary condition v(r) does not depend on such mirrors. This important distinction was not observed by Stokes, when he reduced Michelson’s prediction for his test with Morley (MMX), with 50%. In error he introduced an effect in the transverse arm in MMX. Stokes assumed (in contrast to Michelson) that c+v(r) was ortogonal to mirrors. In reality only c is ortogonal to mirrors. Stokes mistake was helpful for the introduction of time dilation in Lorentz’ ether theory and Einstein’s ether-less theory. To correct for Stokes’ mistake we have to abolish the Lorentz factor and use a contraction of bodies (not space) equal to the Lorentz factor squared.
Having abolished time dilation we have a need for clock dilation. This phenomenon is easily explained by the fact that bound electrons move forth and back in relation to the ether wind v. This fact causes electrons to be accelerated and decelerated during each period of orbiting.
Stokes error regarding MMX started a chain of errors that were increased by Einstein, and due to many errors it was difficult to see the first mistake. This is the reason why we have used the real motion (or beam direction) c+v(r) universally although its validity is limited to observations based on amplitude in focused light. In most optical experiments we use coherent systems using mirrors, and apparent motion (or ray direction) c alone. In these experiments we have to use another model for light propagation, namely c(1+vcosA/c). (A is the angle between c and v). In a cavity of MMX type light is generated coherently, and coherent technology is used in a telescope that detects stellar aberration. So, the two most important tests behind special relativity are interpreted in error due to Stokes’ mistake. Another consequence is that the observations of aberrations in pulsar signals have been explained as a wave front bending, when the real cause is the same rain drop effect as in stellar aberration.
Today we have systems in our pockets that can measure the one-way speed of light. It is therefore remarkable that we have not given up the failures based on Michelson’s two-way experiments. In satellite navigation systems transmitters are positioned on a spherical surface, and receivers are on a smaller surface that is concentric in relation to the first one. It is easily seen that the very high precision in the global positioning systems demands an ether wind with spherical symmetry. An interesting fact is that such a falling ether can explain gravity.
Carel van der Toigt has said that light travels independent of the ether wind. For real light motion this is not true. However, for apparent light motion, as observed in coherent systems, his statement is true for two dimensions transverse to light motion.
Long time ago Stokes failed to see the distinction between beam direction and ray direction. This mistake is the reason to the fact that we today are confused by the twin paradox. Stokes’ mistake has created a serious delay in science. However, the error has been very fruitful for science fiction.
We need two models for propagation of light, but only one (wave) model for the structure of light (if we use a particle model for the ether).