Light in a Cavity
We can regard every point on a wave front as a source for new wave fronts. This is the reason to the fact that light always takes the fastest (not the shortest) way between two points. Light that is locked in between two parallel surfaces also finds the fastest way between these surfaces. Therefore, the mirrors in cavities always force the wave vector, c, to be orthogonal to these mirrors. We can also see this as a consequence of the fact that boundary conditions, implied by mirrors, have relevance for wave vector, c, only and not for the vector sum, c+v. Therefore, standing waves are produced by wave fronts parallel to defining mirrors.
Light behavior, inside a cavity, depends on the aether wind, and also on the mirrors motion longitudinal to light. However, the mirrors’ motions inside their own planes are irrelevant for light behavior, since these motions do not change boundary conditions. Since transverse motions of the mirrors are irrelevant we can conclude that transverse ether wind is irrelevant, and wave front normal is defining unchanged ray direction. Although light from a laser is moving according to the vector sum c+v, defining beam direction, the ray direction is nevertheless independent of v, since v cannot alter the wave fronts’ orientations that define the ray direction. Phase is relevant in coherent systems, and therefore the ray direction should be used. In focused light we can see beam direction as the direction of max amplitude in not coherent systems. The beam direction describes motion, and the ray direction describes orientation. The ray direction is normally the most important concept.
In a coherent system we can describe ray direction as c(1-s/c), (s=longitudinal component in v). Therefore, the aether wind can change the ray direction only in the case when s takes different values over the wave front. This explains why light bending near our sun is only about 10^-5 radians. Michelson and Morley’s interferometer (MMX) is sensitive to phase, and therefore it should be interpreted by means of the ray concept, and this means no effect in the transverse arm. However, Stokes instead used the beam direction and found, in error, an effect in the transverse arm. He assumed mirrors to control c+v instead of c only. To correct for Stokes mistake we must assume 2 times higher changes in the prediction for MMX, which means an effect equal to (1-B^2), (B=v/c), for 2-way speed of light. This effect can be compensated by a contraction of bodies 2 times the Fitzgerald contraction. Therefore, we do not need the confusing time dilation. Instead we can assume the aether wind to change clock frequency by a factor (1-B^2). This is logical since electrons in GPS clocks move forth and back in relation to the ether wind. We find that the ether wind a) contracts matter, b) reduces2-way light speed and c) reduces atomic clock frequency by the same factor equal to (1-B^2). This is a simplification, and an escape from the Lorentz factor.
Ether Wind Detection
In a telescope we must use the ray direction, and the telescope is therefore useless in relation to the ether wind. Instead, for an observer changing his own motion an amount u transverse to light, we must do a coordinate transformation to his frame and we change thereby the ray direction by an amount arctg(u/c). We have found that stellar aberration and MMX are both useless in relation to the ether wind. Instead we have to use a system that can measure the 1-way speed of light. This is something that the GPS system has done for many years. All transmitters are at about 26400 km from the center of our planet, and all receivers are at about 6400 km, that is on the surface of the Earth. That means that an aether wind symmetric spherically in relation to our planet can explain the high precision in the GPS system. Such an aether is explained by this author in Physics without Paradoxes and The Falling Ether. We can regard these ideas as a combination of models by Fatio and Petr Beckmann. Therefore, this model can explain gravity as well. We can test these ideas by assuming an ether wind in radial direction in relation to our planet, and we assume this aether wind to be equal to the ether wind produced by the speed of the satellite in circular orbit. If the clocks are transverse to radius we get the radial effect (1-B^2), and if the clocks are not stabilized in relation to motion the tangential effect is reduced by half, (a mean value of a squared cosine function) and therefore equal to (1-B^2/2). The total effect is therefore (1-3B^2/2). This is in agreement to GPS results.
Newton’s gravity is an approximation, since it depends on the mass point approximation. The range dependency is revealed in tidal effects. Anomalies during solar eclipses indicate that the Moon is shielding gravity from the Sun that hits only parts of our planet, so the point mass approximation is violated. These indications are in agreement to the model by Fatio.
Stokes assumed mirrors in the interferometer to define motion as the vector sum c+v to be ortogonal to mirrors. In fact the mirrors cause boundary conditions that are relevant only in relation to orientation, as the vector c, and irrelevant in relation to v. Stokes thereby used the beam direction instead of the ray direction, and did not see that light takes the fastest, not the shortest, way between mirrors. In this coherent context in MMX transverse ether wind is irrelevant. Therefore, Stokes was the scientist that produced the first, and most important, contribution to the confusion in the so called modern physics. Many errors later made by Einstein made it difficult to detect Stokes’ error.
Correction for the error by Stokes means that the predicted change is doubled in MMX and a factor equal to (1-B^2) for 2-way length traveled in a given time. This is the same as the change in 2-way speed of light. Since atoms in a crystal control their separations by means of the ether it is reasonable to assume that the contraction in solids has the same value. The atoms are exchanging positional information with light speed based on the ether. What else? We can also assume the factor (1-B^2) to be valid for changes in frequency in atomic clocks, since these electrons move forth and back in relation to the ether wind. This means that we can abolish the metaphysical concept time dilation.
The mass of our planet generates an ether wind in radial direction that is about 7.9 km/s near Earth, and 3.9 km/s in a GPS satellite, and also equal to the speed of a satellite in circular orbit. The mass of our planet is in some way hiding for us an ether wind of 30 km/s in direction towards the Sun. The mass of a GPS satellite is not big enough to produce such a hiding effect. Therefore, GPS clocks are affected by a factor (1-3B^2/2) in orbit and (1-B^2) on ground. (If effect from Earth’ rotation is ignored.) This gives results in agreement to observations in GPS, and also according to the RT.
The effect on 2-way light speed due to radial ether wind from our sun is in very good agreement to the anomaly observed in the Pioneer space stations. Describe in The Pioneer and the Ether Wind.
The light bending near our sun can be explained by a gradient in ether wind’s component longitudinal to light, although transverse ether wind is irrelevant.
The effect of the radial ether wind on atomic clocks works in radial direction only. The effect according to GRT works for light moving in all directions. We can therefore test the ideas presented here by changing orientation for a ground based clock from horizontal to vertical orientation. This theory predicts that the so called time dilation will disappear and GRT predicts that it should remain.
An alternative method for comparison with RT is suggested by Dr C C Su. He said that 1-way light speed can be measured in varying directions by means of 2 HeNe lasers separated a couple of meters.
Stokes did not see that ether wind transverse to light is irrelevant for the ray direction that is valid in coherent systems. This mistake provided false arguments for Lorentz aether theory and later Einstein’s theories. These false theories are based on a absurd postulate regarding the same light speed for all not accelerated observers. The best manifestation of this error is that it implies another absurdity, called dilation of time. Therefore we must abolish time dilation and introduce the aether.
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Articles at GSJournal
Articles at CNPS
Article at Galilean Electrodynamics Jan/Feb 2016 called ‘An Aether Wind in Radial Direction’.